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Connecticut Agricultural College 

Vol 1 6 r-f 8 

Class No. S 7 6 



^«^^ ^'hjj.4, 

19 IX 

BOOK 570.H9 17 c 1 


3 ^153 0D1373tb 3 

This Book may be kept out 


only and is subject to a fine of 
TWO CENTS a day thereafter. 
It will be due on the day indicated 

















Copyright, 1927, by 

Hunter, Teachers' ]\Ianual to accompany New Civic Biology. 




It was Huxley who compared the hfe of an organism to a 
whirlpool, the particles of which were constantly changing. 
A similar analogy may be made with reference to the contents 
of a course in Civic Biology of the present day. Xot only is 
the content of the course continually changing, but also the 
methods by which the contents are taught are in a state of 
flux. The alert teacher is always ready to add or to subtract 
from the methodology used and the subject matter presented. 

The pages which follow are intended to be suggestive as 
well as practical. For the young teacher, who, all too often, is 
placed in charge of a high-school class with little adequate 
preparation for teaching, this book should be of practical 
value. For the alert, up-to-date teacher, who reads and keeps 
abreast with new trends in teaching, the author hopes a few 
new but effective methods will be found useful. All who read 
these pages will understand bettei*the point of view and phi- 
losophy of the author of the Xew Civic Biology and its accom- 
panying Xew Laboratory Problems in Civic Biology, 



Introduction. Why and How We Teach Biology .... 1 

The Problem Method 1 

Value of the Concept 1 

Science and Thinking 2 

Walter on Laboratory Work 2 

Old Laboratory Methods 3 

Modern Laboratory Methods 4 

Socialized Recitation 4 

Conclusion and Write-up 5 

Notes and Drawings 5 

Method of the Thought Process 6 

Value of Diagrams and Craphs 7 

Primary and Secondary Problems 8 

Testing Results 9 

Preparation for the Year's Work 11 

Laboratory Preparation 11 

The Laboratory 11 

The Laboratory Atmosphere 12 

Aquaria and Vivaria 12 

Insect Cases • 13 

Materials for Field Trips 13 

Living Things and Plants Obtainable in Autumn . . 14 

Uses of Student Clubs 16 

Charts, Models and Slides 16 

Free ''Teaching Helps" 17 

Laboratory Equipment 18 

Table of Weights, Measures and Temperatures ... 19 



I. Reasons for the Study of Biology 20 

II. Environment of Plants and Animals 22 

III. Living Things and the Environment 24 

IV. Interrelation of Plants and Animals 28 




V. Building Material of Living Things 32 

VI. Plant Growth and Nutrition 34 

VII. Roots in Relation to Soil 30 

VIII. How Green Plants Make Food 40 

IX. Circulation and Uses of Food 43 


X. The Simplest Organisms 45 

XI. Relations of Plants to Animals 47 


XII. Animal Organisms 48 

XIII. Foods and Dietaries 50 

XIV. Food Adulteration, Alcohol and Drugs .... 55 
XV. How Food Is Prepared for Body Uses 57 

XVI. The Blood and Its Circulation 59 

XVII. Respiration and Excretion 62 


XVIII. How Body Control Is Brought About 64 

XIX. How Habits Are Formed 65 


XX. Reproduction in Plants and Animals 66 

XXI. Classification of Plants and Animals 69 


XXII. Bacteria and Disease 71 

XXIII. How We Fight Disease 73 

XXIV. Relations of Animals to Disease 74 

XXV. Man's Improvement of Environment 77 


XXVI. Our Forests 79 

XXVII. Value of Green Plants to Man 80 

XXVIII. Plants without Chlorophyll 81 

XXIX. Economic Importance of Animals 83 

XXX. Conservation and Its Lessons 85 


XXXI. Plant and Animal Breeding 86 

XXXII. Improvement of the Human Race 88 

XXXIII. Some Great Names in Biology 90 

A Suggested Outline for Biology Beginning in Autumn . 92 

List of Topics 92 

Tentative Seasonal Time Assignment, by Chapters. ... 98 

Suggested Outline of Minimum Topics 99 

Tentative Seasonal Time Assignment, by Chapters. . . . 105 

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The Problem Method. — It has become the mode in modern 
education to teach by the so-called ''Problem Method''; 
that is, to attempt to make the child solve problems from the 
beginning of his work in the elementary school. It is one 
thing, however, to say to the child, '' Here is your problem, 
solve it," and quite another thing to lead him through the 
several thought processes necessary to the solution of the 
problem. A child of six may be taught to think, to think 
clearly, if he is guided so that he makes a generalization after 
comparison with what his senses tell him he knows. The mis- 
taken notion of our elementary school system has been that 
drill and drill alone, pure memory work, is the only process 
fitted for the mental life of our young children. Recent ex- 
periments have shown that this is far from the actual truth. 
The mental growth of a child is an evolutionary growth; it 
is a development based more upon his reaction to the world 
than upon the mechanism within his body. The nervous 
system and its connectives develop early. Our education of 
the nervous system, based on the theory that the nervous 
system is not well developed, makes simph^ for the formation 
of concepts, not for training in thought-processes. 

The Value of the Concept. — Let me not be misunderstood. 
The informational value of biological subject matter alone 
justifies its inclusion in our secondary school curriculum. A 
knowledge of biolog;\^ affects mankind in so many ways, that 
the study has now become strongly entrenched as a high- 
school subject. A glance at pages 1-6, New Civic Biology, will 
serve to justify this statement. Health teaching in itself is of 



the utmost importance, and all legitimate aids should be used. 
The American Child Health Association, 370 Seventh Ave., 
New York City; Bulletins of the Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, New York City (free material) ; the weekly reports 
of the Public Health Service, Washington, D. C; the Health 
Bulletins of the Bureau of Education, Washington D. C; and 
the monthly Health Reports of your own State, all are teach- 
ing helps, many of which are usable by the students themselves. 

Science and Thinking. — Concept forming and concept 
enlargement are a necessary part in any scheme of education, 
but the method and the form of straight thinking are of even 
greater importance. Problems in life are not solved by know- 
ing dates or facts, no matter how important or interesting 
these may be. The methods of reaching a conclusion, of 
weighing evidence, of making decisions upon the merits of 
the facts in a case, of thinking straight from evidence gained 
from given data, — these are the habits of mind which are 
worth far more to a child than the actual contact with the sub- 
ject matter in a textbook. Hence pure science, the handmaid 
of clear thought, should place emphasis on method above all 
else. And the method of science is best found in the laboratory. 

Walter on Laboratory Work. — Dr. H. E. Walter has well 
summed up the real use of laboratory work as follows: 

''The laboratory method was such an emancipation from the old- 
time bookish slavery of pre-laboratory days that we may have been 
inclined to overdo it and to subject ourselves to a new slavery. It should 
never be forgotten that the laboratory is simply a means to the end; 
that the dominant thing should be a consistent chain of ideas which the 
laboratory may serve to elucidate. When, however, the laboratory as- 
sumes the first place and other phases of the course are made explanatory 
to it, we have taken, in my mind, an attitude fundamentally wrong. 
The question is, not what types may be taken up in the laboratory, to 
be fitted into the general scheme afterward, but what ideas are most 
worth while to be worked out and developed in the laboratory, if that 
happens to be the best way of doing it, or if not, some other way to be 


adopted with perfect freedom. Too often our course of study of an 
animal or a plant takes the easiest rather than the most illuminating 
path. What is easier, for instance, particularly with a condition of 
uniform occupation, than to kill a supply of animals, preferably as near 
aUke as possible, and to set the pupils to work drawing the dead re- 
mains? This method is usually supplemented by a series of questions 
concerning the remains, which are sure to keep the pupils busy a while 
longer, perhaps until the bell strikes, and which usually are so planned 
as to anticipate any ideas that might naturally crop up in the pupil's 
mind during the drawing exercise. 

''Such an abuse of the laboratory idea is all wrong and should be 
avoided. The ideal laboratory ought to be a retreat for rainy days; a 
substitute for out of doors; a clearing house of ideas brought in from the 
outside. Any course in biology which can be confined within four walls, 
even if these walls be of a modern, well-equipped laboratory, is in some 
measure a failure. Living things, to be appreciated and correctly in- 
terpreted, must be seen and studied in the open where they will be en- 
countered throughout Hfe. The place where an animal or plant is found 
is just as important a characteristic as its shape or function. Impossible 
field excursions ^ith large classes within school hours, which only bring 
confusion to inflexible school programs, are not necessar}^ to accompHsh 
this result. Properly administered, it is without doubt one of our most 
efficient de\'ices for developing biological ideas, but the laboratory should 
be kept in its proper relation to the other means at our disposal and never 
be allowed to degenerate either into a place for vacuous drawing ex- 
ercises or a biological morgue where dead remains are viewed." 

Old Laboratory Methods. — Teaching to think is not a 
sinecure for the teacher, but by proper use of the laboratory 
material and the laboratory period, we may make a brave 
start toward this desirable goal. One preconceived notion of 
a laborator}^ period is that it is a time in which the pupil 
works alone from his specimen in order to interpret some- 
thing which you and I know is there but of which he is ig- 
norant. The method of Agassiz may be fitted for the graduate 
university student, but it must be modified for the immature 
pupil in the high school. We must throw away our college 
and high-school laboratory conception and place ourselves 
in the laboratory as a pupil. 


Modern Laboratory Methods. — The modern high-school 
laboratory period should become largely a discussion period, 
the activity centering either in material in the hands of the 
pupils or in a demonstration made either as a project by an 
individual pupil or else performed by the teacher and a 
group of students. The members of the class should be re- 
quired to take rough notes as the discussion proceeds and, if 
the work is experimental in nature, the four steps of the ex- 
periment should become a matter of habit. The problem 
(what we propose to do), should be a matter of considerable 
discussion, and not until several different versions are given 
by different pupils should they be allowed to put the title in 
their notebooks. The subsequent steps of method (what we 
do), observation (what we see as a result of what we do), and 
conclusion (the answer based on the evidence) should be 
written only after ample discussion in class. 

Be a leader in the discussion which will center around the 
specimens in the pupils' hands. Present, in connection with 
the laboratory material, definite problems relating to some 
phase of activity of the material in hand, something vital 
in the mind of the pupil. Lead the discussion, using the 
questions in New Laboratory Problems, but augment them 
with others that will naturally arise during the discussion, 
toward the solution of some definite phase of the problem. 

The Socialized Recitation. — Allow conversation among 
the pupils. Get as many ideas from different pupils as you 
can. Pit the brighter ones against each other, and the spirit 
of competition will incite the dull ones to add their mites. 
If one student is appointed to the leadership of the class, care 
must be taken that the spirit of problem-solving be main- 
tained. Keep in the background, but guide the discussion 
toward a goal, — that is your function as a teacher. Do not 
be afraid to tell when it is time to give information and do not 
be afraid to say, '^ I don't know." 


The Conclusion and the Write-up. — Ultimately the time 
comes, when the discussion of facts as pupils see them 
reaches the place where a conclusion may safely be reached. 
Now is the place for the teacher, again formulating the prob- 
lem, to give the class — this time as individuals — oppor- 
tunity to write their generalizations, or their answer to the 
problem, in the form of a good English sentence or paragraph. 
After this is done, reading of conclusions by several individu- 
als allows by comparison the fixing of the correct conclusion 
in the minds of all. Time is thus obtained for rectifying the 
tangled ideas of those members of the class less able to cope 
with the problem. Incidentally, this does away to a large 
extent with correcting laboratory papers, as the student, by 
comparison with the final corrected conclusion, does his own 
correcting. This makes for more effective science teaching, 
as the teacher of science should be a leader, not a drudge. 

Notes and Drawings. — It is suggested that two notebooks 
be used. In one, the home or source notebook, should be 
placed all rough notes, either dictation notes or those looked 
up from original sources. The other, the laboratory notebook, 
should be used for drawings and written work done in class 
as well as for experiments and demonstrations performed in 
the laboratory. 

All written work in final form should be in ink, and great 
care should be exercised not only in the construction of good 
English sentences, but also in writing. A careless, slovenly 
page may spoil otherwise excellent work. 

Especial care should be taken in making drawings. A hard 
pencil (HHHHH) sharpened to a needle-like point should be 
used. Drawings should not be shaded, and only the outline 
should be asked for. Each line that appears should mean 
something definite to the pupil. Cooprider, in a recent paper 
entitled Shall the Drawing he Inked?, indicates that the use 
of ink in laboratory drawing justifies the additional time 


spent.* One investigator, T. C. Ayer,t reports that ^' Ex- 
cessive use of representative drawing is a serious peda- 
gogical formalism which produces copyists instead of scientists 
and which creates distaste instead of enthusiasm for science/' 
On the other hand ^' analytical drawing aids retention 
in the same manner as does description. '^ This study in- 
dicates the value of carefully worked out diagrams as 
against representations of the laboratory object or experi- 

The Method of the Thought Process — Those of us who 
have read Dewey, How We Think, remember his analysis of 
a complete act of thought. The five (or four) steps in re- 
flective thinking are shown to be (1-2) the location and 
definition of a felt difficulty, (3) the suggestion of possible 
solution, (4) the development by reasoning of the bearings 
of this suggestion, (5) further observation and experiment 
leading to the acceptance or rejection; that is, the conclusion 
of belief or disbelief. One cannot avoid a comparison here 
with the formal steps of the experiment, (1) the formulation 
of a problem, (2) the method of solution, and (3) observa- 
tions by means of which we are led to the acceptance or 
rejection of materials worked with in forming (4) a conclusion. 
In other words, the technique of the experiment is not very 
unlike the process of an act of reflective thinking. Sometimes 
a generalization is asked for, perhaps before the pupil is 
ready for it, for the object is to incite the worker to be some- 
thing more than a blind reader of directions and a maker of 
drawings. An immature conclusion — even a wrong con- 
clusion — in the form of a generalization, is better for the 
pupil than contentment with no conclusion at all. If the 
child can be stimulated to think from the very beginning, 

* The Psychology of Drawing with Special Reference to Laboratory 
Teaching, pp. 37-39. 

t Curtis, Investigations in the Teaching of Science. Blakiston. 1926. 


then do not worry at first over the exactitude of his conclusion 
so long as he is trained in the making of judgments. It is 
the thought process we seek to develop first, the method of 
thinking more than the scientifically exact result. The latter 
will come gradually as the horizon of the pupil widens. We 
all know our concepts change. An exact concept at fourteen 
may not stand the test at twenty-four or at forty. It is a 
ti-ue maxim that experience is the best teacher. Be that so, 
even experience does not make thinkers of us, unless we 
know how to profit by her teachings. 

The Value of Diagrams and Graphs. — The pages that 
follow are intended to act as a guide to the teacher so that 
.he may interpret the various units of New Civic Biology and 
New Laboratory Problems in Civic Biology to the students. 
Many children do not know how to use their text. Diagrams 
and figures mean little to them. The old-fashioned thought 
questions found in so many textbooks of twenty-five years 
ago were of great value because they crystalized the problem 
and focused the pupil's attention on the essentials within a 
given paragraph. The teaching value of questions on dia- 
grams is great because of their emphasis on essentials. The 
understanding of graphs is a part of every educated person's 
mental equipment. These factors are strongly emphasized 
in the working out of many problems in Xew Laboratory 
Problems in Civic Biology. 

Use of the Laboratory Problems. — All too many courses 
in science are given without adequate laboratory work. The 
reason given for this unscientific method is that the teacher 
is overburdened with work and the school equipment is too 
deficient. While both of these reasons are good excuses, 
laboratory problems and particularly project work can and 
should be given in connection with all courses in elementarj^ 
biology. No school has an equipment so meager that at 
least some of the problems or demonstrations in that book 


cannot be performed. And no teacher is so overworked that 
he cannot direct his students through the use of a laboratory 
guide. A laboratory guide should also stimulate the pupil 
to see beyond the printed page of his textbook. New Lab- 
oratory Problems in Civic Biology is intended to focus the 
student's attention on certain teaching units in the New 
Civic Biology. This is done by means of specific problems in 
which the pupil is directed to use diagrams of cuts or textual 
material in the book as a basis for laboratory study, and also 
by means of numerous questions, which are intended to be 
thought-provoking. An attempt has been made by the au- 
thor to be practical as well as logical, and to gain interest 
through the practical treatment of things that are familiar 
to the pupil. Whenever possible, technical terms are done 
away with, and experiments are made as simple as possible 
without destroying their scientific value. 

Primary and Secondary Problems. — In general, a few 
large group problems have been made that directly explain 
the text of the New Civic Biology, which the New Laboratory 
Problems is intended to interpret in the laboratory. In addi- 
tion to these, other secondary but closely associated problems 
are added, with less explicit directions, in order to give op- 
portunity for some mental activity on the part of the pupil 
in their solution. It is not expected that all the problems are 
to be attempted in a year's course in elementary biology, but 
a choice should be made by the instructor of what he considers 
the most important for his own particular classes. A list of the 
most important problems will be given in connection with each 
chapter that follows. It is far more important to do a few 
experiments carefully than it is to cover a large number 
without making the proper controls. If the experiment is 
used to habituate the student in the method of science, it 
must be as exact as the limitations of the laboratory will 
allow. Every step should be controlled, where possible, and 


the pupil must be made to realize that progress in science 
has been made only by slow and exact steps. One experi- 
ment, exactly performed, may be used as a substitute for 
other somewhat similar ones referred to in the text. Such 
experiments may well be performed by the more able pupils 
as extra credit projects to be demonstrated in a study period 
or at a Science Club meeting. 

What has just been said with reference to the performance 
of experiments or laboratory work in general holds true in 
regard to the written work of the student. It is much better 
for the progress of the pupil that he write up one experiment 
exactly than to set down several in a careless or slipshod 
manner. Neatness and accuracy in laboratory procedure 
are habits worth forming. 

Testing Results. — A series of tests can be used at the 
completion of each unit of the textbook. These tests will 
aid both teacher and pupil in determining how much prog- 
ress has been made in learning that unit. They should 
frequently be changed in form, and it is very desirable to 
give with the old style essay test many of the new shorter 
tests of one or several of the types listed below. At the end 
of the course the Ruch-Cossman Test, published by the 
World Book Company, Yonkers, N. Y., or the Richards 
Biology Test, written by Oscar W. Richards, Department of 
Zoology, University of Oregon, published by the C. H. Stoelt- 
ing Company, Chicago, 111., may be tried and the pupil's 
score may be checked against the existing standards. 

The different forms of the newer tests make for interest, 
because of their variety. These types might be described as, 

1. True-False test. The pupil is to indicate which answer 
is correct. 

2. Multiple Choice. The word or number of the w^ord or 
phrase that most nearly answers the question is judged by 
the pupil. 


3. Answer in one word. Questions can be framed in such 
a way that but one word is needed as an answer. 

4. Completion type. The pupil completes a sentence 
with a word or words that answer the question. 

5. Label parts of drawings. 

6. Complete drawings. 

7. Explanation of graphs. 

Not only can you learn the results of your teaching but 
also you can stimulate and watch the mental growth of your 
pupils by continuous testing. This means that quick and la- 
bor-saving devices must be evolved. These new type tests 
are devised for frequent testing, with the minimum effort 
required for the correcting of papers. 

References. — All the book references given in the following 
pages are found in the bibliography of the New Laboratory 
Problems in Civic Biology, in connection with the chapters 
under discussion. 

The questions given at the end of various problems follow 
the old and tried plan of summary questions given at the end 
of a chapter in a textbook, for the purpose of bringing to- 
gether the important points in the mind of the pupil. These 
questions are so formulated as to make the student use the 
material worked over in the laboratory, together with the 
additional information gleaned from the text, so as to reach 
definite and clear-cut conclusions concerning the essential 

In the pages which follow, every chapter is prefaced with a 
few words to the teacher. These are important, as they 
serve to indicate the viewpoint of the writer and the philoso- 
phy underlying the various parts of the textbook. It is 
hoped that these suggestions may add clarity and help those 
who use New Civic Biology and New Laboratory Problems 
in Civic Biology to organize their work. 


The Bugbear of Laboratory Preparation. — The average 
young teacher in a small high school views with little joy the 
prospect of teaching a laborator^^ course! Laboratory prepa- 
ration, especially to the overworked teacher with several 
subjects to teach and with outside activities to look after, is 
a bugbear! This phantom of troublesome preparation, how- 
ever, need not confront the teacher, if he or she will simply 
learn to prepare the work, not minutes, not hours, but some- 
times weeks, in advance. The object of this chapter is to 
give suggestions for the handling of a year's laborator}^ work. 

The Laboratory. — First and foremost, laboratory con- 
ditions in a small school are quite hkely to be upsetting to 
the young teacher fresh from college or university labora- 
tories, where evers^thing necessary for teaching biology is at 
hand. A small room, a meager equipment - often these 
seem to spell defeat at the outset. Yet such need not be the 
fact. A laboratory^ is what the teacher and the students, 
working together, make it. I have been in finely equipped 
high-school laboratories that totally lack the spirit of natural 
science, and I have seen shabby schoolrooms, scantily fur- 
nished with apparatus, having ordinary desks and seats in- 
stead of proper tables and movable chairs, which yet were 
filled with the spirit of study and experiment in biology. Why 
the difference? Simply that in one case little or no living 
material was exhibited; in the other, the room was crowded 
with living specimens, brought in mostly by enthusiastic 
pupils, nature lovers. It is not so much the elaborate equip- 
ment that counts as it is the living plants and animals that 
the laboratory contains. Aquaria and vivaria are more im- 



portant than chemicals and running water and black-topped 
tables. A few essential materials will suffice. If the teacher 
is fortunate enough, however, to be able to plan and equip a 
laboratory, a number of valuable suggestions will be found in 
Chapter X of A Textbook in the Principles of Science Teach- 
ing, Twiss, published by The Macmillan Company; or the 
Description of the Science Laboratories of the Lincoln School 
of Teachers College, Glenn, Finley and Caldwell, issued by 
the Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, New York. 

The Laboratory Atmosphere. — In most schools labora- 
tories are equipped with flat-topped tables, with or without 
lockers, and with chairs. Personally, I prefer fairly wide 
tables with hardwood tops, blackened. The students' lockers 
may well be separated, as wall cases, and should always be 
under the teacher's supervision. The room should be light 
and airy, of course, with windows on two sides, if possible. 
Direct sunlight, though bad for microscope work, is necessary 
for growing plants and for many living animals. Work with 
microscopes forms such a small part of the average elemen- 
tary course that its needs may be disregarded in favor of the 
greater opportunities for making the laboratory as much as 
possible like the world out-of-doors. The teacher's desk 
should be large and equipped with sink, running water and 
gas. An ideal arrangement is found in schools that have 
demonstration tables with water and gas, built around the 
sides of the room, as this makes a place for small group dem- 
onstrations and exhibits. 

Aquaria and Vivaria. — Glass cylinder jars holding from 5 
to 10 gallons each have been found best for school purposes. 
They are easily handled, easily cleaned, and not very ex- 
pensive. They may be obtained from any supply house, 
such as the Central Scientific Co., Chicago, 111.; Eimer and 
Amend, New York; or the University Apparatus Co., Berke- 
ley, Cal. Battery jars make cheap, durable, small aquaria. 


Larger, metal-framed aquaria are useful for animals such as 
crayfish, frogs and salamanders. Hodge, in his Nature Study 
and Life, pages 393-399, gives full directions how to make an 
aquarium. Vivaria for frogs and other animals may be made 
according to the plans given on page 410 of The Teaching of 
Biology, Lloyd and Bigelow. Excellent substitutes for viva- 
ria can be made by pupils at home or in the school shop, with 
wooden frames, galvanized wire sides, and a cheap tin pan 
for the removable bottom. On any field trip, a wealth of 
material is brought back to the school, and with proper 
facilities for keeping this material, much genuine interest will 
be developed. Young people usually like to keep the aquaria 
and vivaria in good condition, and this makes for personal 

In many schoolrooms a Wardian case or small plant- 
growing room may be built by the school carpenter, in a 
window, as part of the permanent equipment of the room. 
This should be provided with shelves and filled with potted 
plants, which thus can be kept in a healthy condition away 
from the dust of the schoolroom. Working plans for a simple 
Wardian case can be found on pages 83-85 of Ganong, The 
Teaching Botanist, published by the ^Nlacmillan Company. 

Insect Cases. — ]\Iany insects will be brought in by student 
collectors, in the spring and in the autumn. A simple cage 
can be made of wire screening in the form of a cylinder 6 to 
8 inches in diameter and 12 to 16 inches high, with a top of 
cardboard or wire. The cylinder can be fastened together 
with fine wire or thread, and should be set over a fliower-pot 
containing the food plant required by the insect. ]\Iason 
jars with screen tops are serviceable for aquatic insects. 

Materials for Field Trips. — Since much of the living ma- 
terial for study is obtained on field trips, certain equipment 
is necessary before a trip is taken. An insect net, for instance. 
This can be purchased from such a supply house as the Cam- 


bridge Botanical Supply Co., Waverly, Mass., or it can be 
made easily by bending about a yard of #3 galvanized iron 
wire in the form of a circle, with two ends sticking out; these 
ends can be bound to or stuck into the end of a light rod 4 or 
5 feet in length. The net itself is made of mosquito netting 
and should be at least 3 feet long. Mason jars with holes in 
the tops may be used to bring insects back to the laboratory. 
Aquatic insects also may be brought back in these jars, but 
be sure to give the larvae plenty of air. 

Living Things Obtainable on Autumn Field Trips. — In- 
sects, spiders, and myriapods are plentiful in autumn. In- 
sects of many different orders should be caught alive, as well 
as killed and mounted for future study. One of the most 
interesting features of some laboratories is an observation 
hive of bees. Hodge, in his Nature Study and Life, Chapter 
XIV, devotes ample space to directions how to keep bees in 
an observation hive. 

Small Crustacea, such as amphipods and copepods, usually 
may be obtained by dipping water from small ponds that 
have plenty of aquatic vegetation. A dip-net for this purpose 
is easily made by using #3 wire for a frame and bolting cloth 
or cheesecloth for the net. Frogs and crayfish can be found 
along sluggish streams or in shallow ponds, or they can be 
obtained alive from some dealer, such as A. A. Sphung, North 
Judson, Ind., or the Southern Biological Supply Co., New 
Orleans, La. Earthworms, turtles, salamanders, lizards, 
snakes, small fish — all form part of the equipment of a 
laboratory. Turtles are easily kept, but they must not be 
put in the same aquarium with small fish or frogs. Snakes, 
such as the common garter snake or the DeKay snake, 
make interesting pets. A small alligator costs about $1.25 
shipped alive from New Orleans, and is of much interest. 
However, do not attempt to keep such animals as lizards, 
chameleons, alligators, etc., if the temperature of the school- 


room is allowed to drop below 40^ F. at night. Mollusks, 
such as freshwater snails and clams, can be kept easily; 
snails are invaluable additions to a balanced aquarium, as 
the}^ keep the sides of the jar free of green growth. 

Plants Obtainable in Autumn. — It is obvious that many 
of the flowering plants available in flower during the late 
spring are not found in usable form during the fall months. 
Composites, except as food plants or to illustrate seed and 
fruit formation and scattering of seeds or their adaptations, 
are not very useful. On the other hand, some flowers such 
as '' Snapdragon " or *' Butter and Eggs '' are very valuable 
because of specific adaptations they show. Salvia, milkweed, 
and many other weeds might be mentioned. For keeping pur- 
poses, hardy plants are necessary. The geranium is one of 
the best. Oxalis keeps well in the school window and is 
useful for experiments. Willow twigs should be brought in 
early and the experiment on growth of roots should be 
started soon after the beginning of school. Leaves of various 
sorts can be collected earh^ in autumn, pressed, and used 
as examples. 

Early in the fall, planting of peas, lima and kidney beans 
should be made in deep pans filled with sawdust. If they 
are watered with Sachs nutrient solution, or even with tap 
water, they will grow sufficiently to show all stages needed 
in the laboratory. Consult a local florist for plants easy to 
grow in the schoolroom, and make use of English ivy, as that 
grows well and gives a background of green in a room. 
Tradescantia is another plant easily grown in a schoolroom. 
The hydrangea, if potted in the early fall and transferred 
to the laboratory, will usually keep its leaves. '' ^Nlonocot ^^ 
and ^' dicot " stems are usually obtainable even in late au- 
tumn, in most temperate localities. Corn, horse chestnut 
and '' buckeye " are the most easily used materials. 

Early in the fall a trip should be made to some nearby pond 


for the purpose of collecting aquatic plants. Elodea, spiro- 
gyra and other algae, water hyacinth, duckweed and other 
vegetation is available in most localities. Explore your own 
locality early in the fall. Bring back any suitable material 
you find, for all can be utilized. 

Uses of Student Clubs. — City boys and girls are always 
keen for trips into the country, and this can be made a habit 
with certain groups, if they are organized into a Biology 
Club. The club idea is, perhaps, one of the most useful helps 
the teacher has. Not only will thej^ obtain much material 
when needed, but they may also be formed into a group who, 
in the school, are responsible for the care of plants and ani- 
mals in the schoolroom. 

A science magazine for the school is an excellent project 
for club activity. The new mimeotype stencils make it pos- 
sible to produce attractive covers and any sort of fillers. 

Charts, Models and Slides. — Most schools nowadays have 
at least some of the Kny botanical charts or the Jung zoo- 
logical charts. The Frosch charts in human physiology are 
very useful. Perhaps the most useful charts, however, are 
homemade. Excellent permanent charts can be made in 
India ink on white or yellow window shades. Heavy brown 
paper and waterproof chalks are useful if semi-permanent 
charts are needed. Capitalize the ability of some one of 
your pupils in this respect. Models and charts can be ob- 
tained from the Denoyer-Gippert Co., Chicago, 111. Lantern 
slides are loaned, free, from the Department of Visual In- 
struction in several states. Try your own State Education 
Department. An excellent slide (homemade) to show teach- 
ing diagrams, etc., can be made by drawing in India ink on a 
special tracing paper supplied by the Wittaker Paper Co., 
New York, N. Y. Such paper, after use, is mounted on a 
cleaned lantern slide, with or without a cover. 


Free ** Teaching Helps.'' — Scores of agencies exist from 
which the teacher of biology may obtain free material. Chief 
among these are the United States Governmental agencies. 
Send to the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C., for a list of free docu- 
ments. Price Lists #23 and #31. The State Departments of 
Education and National and State Bureaus of Forestry, 
Fisheries and Agriculture have numerous publications avail- 
able. Obtain Frank, How to Teach General Science, P. 
Blakiston^s Sons, and use the very full list of various ma- 
terials available to teachers, both from commerical and public 
sources. Especially note ^' Teaching Materials from Com- 
mercial Firms, '^ '' Helps in Bird Teaching " and '' Best x\ids 
to Health Teaching." These lists are about the most up-to- 
date now known to the writer. 


Laboratory Equipment 

The following articles comprise a simple equipment for a laboratory class 
of ten. The equipment for larger classes is proportionately less in price. The 
following articles may be obtained from any reliable dealer in laboratory 
supplies, such as the Central Scientific Supply Co., of Chicago. 
1 balance, Harvard trip style, with weights on carrier. 
1 bell jar, about 365 mm. high by 165 mm. in diameter. 
10 wide mouth (salt mouth) bottles, with corks to fit. 
10 25 c.c. dropping bottles for iodine, etc. 
25 250 c.c. glass-stoppered bottles for stock solutions. 
100 test tubes, assorted sizes, principally 6" X f ". 
50 test tubes on base (excellent for demonstrations). 
2 graduated cylinders, one to 100 c.c, one to 500 c.c. 

1 package filter paper 300 mm. in diameter. 
10 flasks, Erlenmeyer form, 500 c.c. capacity. 

2 glass funnels, one 50 mm., one 150 mm. in diameter. 
30 Petri dishes, 100 mm. in diameter, 10 mm. in depth. 
10 feet glass tubing, soft, sizes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, assorted. 

1 aquarium jar, 10 liters capacity. 

2 specimen jars, glass tops, of about 1 liter capacity. 
10 hand magnifiers, vulcanite or tripod form. 

2 compound demonstration microscopes or 1 more expensive compound 
300 insect pins, Klaeger, 3 sizes assorted. 
10 feet rubber tubing to fit glass tubing, size f inch. 

1 chemical thermometer graduated to 100° C. 
15 agate ware or tin trays about 350 mm. long by 100 wide. 
1 gal. 95 per cent alcohol. (Do not use denatured alcohol.) 
1 set gram weights, 1 mg. to 100 g. 2 books test paper, red and blue. 
1 razor, for cutting sections. 10 Syracuse watch glasses. 

1 box rubber bands, assorted sizes. 1 steam sterilizer (tin will do). 
1 support stand with rings. 1 spool fine copper wire. 

1 test tube rack. 1 alcohol lamp. 6 oz. nitric acid. 

5 test tube brushes. 1 gross slides. 6 oz. ammonium hydrate. 

10 pairs scissors. 100 cover slips No. 2. 6 oz. benzole or xylol. 

10 pairs forceps. 1 mortar and pestle. 6 oz. chloroform. 

20 needles in handles. 2 bulb pipettes. i lb. coi^per sulphate. 

10 scapels. 1 liter formol. ^ lb. sodium hydroxide. 

12 mason jars, pints. 1 oz. iodine cryst. i lb. rochelle salts. 

12 mason jars, quarts. 1 oz. potassium iodide. 6 oz. glycerine. 
The materials for Pasteur's solution and Sach's nutrient solution can best 
be obtained from a druggist at the time needed and in very small and accu- 
rately measured quantities. 

The agar or gelatin cultures in Petri dishes may be obtained from the local 
Board of Health or from any good druggist. These cultures are not difficult 
to make, but they take a number of hours' consecutive work, often difficult 
for the average teacher to perform. Full directions how to prepare these cul- 
tures will be found in Hunter's New Laboratory Problems in Civic Biology. 


Weights, Measures, and Temperatures 

As the metric system of weights and measures and the Centigrade meas- 
urement of temperatures are employed in scientific work, the following tables 
shoTvdng the English equivalents of those in most frequent use are given for 
the convenience of all who are not already familiar with these standards. 
The values given are approximate only, but wdll answer for all practical 



Measures of Length 

Gram . . . . 


2 J pounds 


loj grains avoir- 

/s of an ounce Kilometer I kr 


61 cubic inches, 

or a little more 

than 1 quart. 



U. S. measure. 

Cubic cen- 

timeter. . 


^^Q of a cubic 







i of a mile. 

39 inches. 

4 inches. 

I of an inch. 

.5^ of an inch. 

The next table gives the Fahrenheit equivalent for every tenth degree 
Centigrade from absolute zero to the boiling point of water. To find the 
corresponding F. for any degree C. multiply the given C. temperature by 
nine, divide bj^ five, and add thirty-two. Conversely, to change F. to C. 
equivalent, subtract thirty-two, multiph' by five, and divide by nine. 







Cent. Fahr. 



50. .. 

. ..122 

0. . 

... 32 

- 50 -58 


. ... 194 

40. . . 

... 104 

-10. . 

... 14 

-100. .. .-148 



30. .. 

... 86 
... 68 

-20. . 

. . .-22 


Absolute zero 


. ... 140 


... 50 


. . .-40 

-273.... -459 



The Reason for the Preview. — It has become the fashion 
nowadays in the psychology of business to talk about ^^ sell- 
ing ^' a proposition to the public when the wish is to interest 
it in a new venture. This is good psychology for the teacher 
as well as for tjie business man. Students, even in the early 
years of the high school, are blase, especially if the attitude 
of the Junior High School has been well developed. It be- 
comes necessary, then, for each high-school subject to be 
^^ sold '^ to the students, if their interest and effort are to be 
gained from the start. The first chapter of the New Civic 
Biology is intended to show students some of the ways in 
which biology will be useful to them in their daily lives. 

How to Make this Chapter Count. — An excellent way to 
miake a start is to use the first chapter in the textbook as a 
basis for an open forum meeting. Have each member of the 
class bring in the first exercise of the New Laboratory Prob- 
lems. Then ask the class as a whole to read the chapter and 
ask each student to report on one paragraph of the chapter 
which he found most interesting. Suggest that they go to the 
librarian of the Public Library, learn how to use Poolers Index 
and the Readers^ Guides, and bring in as a brief report an ab- 
stract of some article covering the phase of work that inter- 
ested them most. A worth-while addition on the part of the 
teacher might be the story of the conquest of malaria or of 
yellow fever. Walter Reed and Yellow Fever, by H. A. Kelly, 
published by Norman, Remington Company, Baltimore, 
Md., will give material for a report. 



In the first chapter of Science Teaching^ Twiss gives in- 
teresting examples of how science method works in great 
discoveries. A fascinating book easily read by high-school 
students is Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunters, published by 
Harcourt, Brace and Company. Locy, Biology and Its 
Makers, Henry Holt and Company, gives much interesting 
material. The Metropolitan Life Insurance Society pub- 
lishes a series of short biographies of great scientists that 
make excellent material for reports. 

The teacher should have access to the weekly reports of 
the United States Public Health Service and to the " Weekly 
News Letter '' of Science Service. The latter, in particular, 
contains much new material of great value for round table 

Time Allotment. — A start of the nature outlined may 
take two periods of the time of the course, one period for a 
round table discussion of the chapter, one period for reading 
reports and comments. It will be time well taken, however, 
and it will open the way for cooperation between student 
and teacher in the later weeks of the course. 





General Science a Prerequisite. — This chapter of the 
textbook will be in the nature of a review for students who 
have had a year in general science. Probably for such pupils 
it will be unwise to take much time on the experiments. 
Some of the better informed students might be asked to 
prepare and demonstrate such experiments as ^' What Pro- 
portion of the Air is Oxygen/' the '^ Oxidation of Carbon '^ 
and the ^^ Test for Carbon Dioxide.' ' ^' The Separation of 
Water into its Elements " should not be attempted except 
where complete apparatus is at hand. In the event that the 
pupils have had no elementary science, the experimental work 
in the chapter is of relative importance and will go much more 
slowly. The composition of air, the part played by oxygen 
in oxidation and the result of the oxidation of carbon are the 
most important experiments to perform in the laboratory. 
At least a week will be required to demonstrate these and to 
afford time for discussion. 

Main Points in the Chapter. — The class discussion should 
be directed rather to the application of the facts shown by 
the experiments in the environment of the classroom. Plants, 
animals, students are living things; how do they make use 
of the factors of the environment? And the fact that liv- 
ing things have the same chemical elements found in their 
immediate environment should be pointed out. Teachers 
will find H. F. Osborn, The Origin and Evolution of LifCj 



Charles Scribner's Sons, an invaluable help at this point. 
Read Part I, Chapters I and II and explain to the class how 
it may be possible to account for the beginnings of life on the 
earth. The application of the physical and chemical knowl- 
edge gained is best interpreted through any good elementary 
textbook of Agriculture, also from Broadhurst, Home and 
Cominunity Hygiene^ J. B. Lippincott Company. The lat- 
ter book should be on the shelves of every high-school library. 
Time Allotment. — The number of periods devoted to 
this chapter should not exceed four; and, if the work is of the 
nature of review, the periods can easily be condensed into 
one. Laboratory work that has been previously done need 
not be done over, as this may deaden interest in the course. 


Practical Values. — This chapter may be made one of the 
most vital in the course by introducing in a broad way what 
the environment gives to living things within it, how plants 
and animals are limited by their environment, and how man 
alone, of all living creatures, may change and modify his en- 
vironment for better or for worse. This last problem is 
fundamental to all the later work of the course. This chap- 
ter heading gives the pupil the keynote of the problems which 
follow, and enlists his sympathy and interest from the first, 
for it shows him that biology is a very human subject and 
one vital to the understanding of the improvement of en- 
vironment. It is understood that the problems as outlined 
are possible of many modifications, the environment of the 
pupils serving as the guide to the type of questions to be 
given. The needs of city children and the condition of their 
environment differ in many respects from those of country 
children. But the fundamental factors of the environment 
are the same, and by comparison should be shown to be the 

Field Work and its Value. — Environmental problems may 
be solved in a field trip which takes the class into the real 
country; but lacking this, a city park or even a vacant lot 
may give a laboratory period of great value. One of the 
most remarkable examples of good teaching I saw many 
years ago in a congested part of Chicago. The teacher was 
H. E. Walter, now a professor in Brown University and a 
well known author; the laboratory was a vacant lot adjoin- 
ing the high school; the problem was the investigation of 
the habits of certain insects living in that sandy, forlorn area. 



The class was alert and intent on the solution of their problem, 
and the results obtained were far more vital than a similar 
exercise held in the school laboratory under artificial con- 

If observational field work is planned, the teacher should 
first visit the area to be explored and should work out a few 
suggested questions both on the environmental factors and 
the plants and animals found living there. Never attempt 
field work without first planning the work, even to details. 
Then from the start, have the class understand that the exer- 
cise is real work of real interest and not " just an excursion.'^ 
Check up the students carefully, both as to effort and results 
obtained, and you need never fear for discipline in the field. 

Being Alive. — Another vital concept is that all hving 
things have certain activities in common. The distinction 
between " aliveness " and " non-ahveness '^ may be hard for 
the pupil to get, especially if laboratory material is not at 
hand. Several small animals, kept in the school vivarium, a 
balanced aquarium, a few growing plants, such as oxalis or 
geranium, will help in the understanding of what are the 
functions of living things. The growth of cr\^stals, such as 
rock candy or alum (which may be formed by suspending 
strings in hot saturated solutions of either sugar or alum), will 
illustrate growth by accretion. An excellent book for the 
teacher here is Galloway, Zoology, P. Blakiston's Sons and 
Company, Philadelphia. 

Tropisms Studied in an Elementary Course in Biology. — 
The subject of tropisms is one that lends itself to classroom 
work and home projects. Phototropism may be shown easily 
by growing oxalis or bean seedlings in an uneven illumination 
for several days before this exercise. Bottles of fruit flies 
may be used for responses to light. The attraction of ani- 
mals to food illustrates kinds of chemitropism. A very inter- 
esting food response will be given by the common hydra. 


Crustacea, such as crayfish or salt water crabs, will respond 
to food stimuli under laboratory conditions. Negative 
responses to unfavorable stimuli can easily be shown in the 
common earthworm (use ammonia or weak acid brought 
in close proximity to the anterior end of the worm). The 
crayfish will also respond to odors unpleasant to them. Hy- 
drotropism may be shown by germinating mustard seeds 
(which secrete a mucilaginous substance) on the under side 
of a wet sponge. The roots, instead of growing downward 
(geotropism), will grow toward the water (hydrotropism). 
Similar seeds planted on the top of a moist sponge may be 
used as a control. Beans or peas grown in boxes of sawdust 
with water given only from one side, will show roots curving 
in that direction. A box of seedlings with equal distribution 
of water, may be used as a control. The pull of gravity may 
be measured by use of a simple experiment. Pin a lima bean 
on a piece of cork directly over a small jar of mercury, covered 
with a film of water. The root will press down into the mer- 
cury sufficiently to displace it a little. For further sugges- 
tions on tropisms use Osterhout, Experiments with Plants, 
or Ganong, The Teaching Botanist, both published by The 
Macmillan Company. 

Time Allotment. — One entire laboratory or class period 
should be devoted to the concept of adaptations. Chapter 
XVI, Animal Life, Jordan and Kellogg, D. Appleton and 
Company, New York, should be carefully digested by the 
teacher before attempting any laboratory work. The mem- 
bers of the class will be quick to bring in material to il- 
lustrate the classification of adaptations. If time allows, 
a field trip might be taken with the purpose of collecting 
and classifying adaptative materials from plant and 
animal sources. Such materials, if dry, can be mounted in 
Riker mounts and put away for future use. Excellent 
preparations showing adaptations can be obtained from any 


good dealer in biological material such as the Biological 
Supply Co., Chicago, 111., or the Cambridge Botanical Supply 
Co., Waverly, Mass. Good work may be done also with 
materials collected by students, for adaptation is observable 
everywhere in nature. 

Much or little time may be spent on this chapter, depend- 
ing upon the resources of the teacher and the lateness of be- 
ginning the school year. It is necessary to begin field trips 
while material is still available, which means before the end 
of September, in most temperate parts of the United States. 
Probably it will be better to limit the work on tropisms to a 
few incidental illustrations at this time. Combine the field 
trip on adaptations with the trip outlined in the following 
chapter and allow not more than one or two school periods 
for this chapter. After all, the concept of adaptive response 
is one that can best be fixed by constant repetition and allu- 
sion. We see examples of adaptation constantly in the labo- 
ratory and in the larger laboratory of the living world. Make 
use of such material by means of student comments and re- 
ports and thus fix the concept. ^Material in this chapter will 
be constantly referred to during the year's course. 


Interdependence of Organisms. — This chapter of the 
textbook may be used to show broadly the interdependence of 
organisms. As much of the work as possible should be made 
to depend upon a field trip, as the interest thus gained carries 
over into the laboratory later. Specifically, emphasis should 
be placed on the accurate determination of relations existing 
between a given insect and a flower, as in cross-pollination. 
For this purpose careful study should be made of some one 
flower in connection with some one insect that is known to 
act as a pollinating agent. Also the identification of a few 
common insects is an important part of the field and labora- 
tory work. The exercises given on pages 27-37 of the New 
Laboratory Problems indicate the type of work the WTiter has 
found most valuable. These exercises may easily be adapted 
to fit the particular environment of the class. Suggestions 
have already been made as to the conduct of a field trip. The 
materials to be supplied or to be brought by the pupils have 
been described. 

Interests in the Rural Community. — This chapter is of 
vital importance to pupils in a rural community. Probably, 
most children know something about the insects they see in 
their everyday life, but few know anything about classifica- 
tion of insects. There are always a few children who can use 
a key with a degree of success. They should refer to a good 
but simple book on insects, such as Lutz, Field Book of Insects, 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 

Specific Work Best. — Laboratory work on poflination by 
insects is done best with such a flower as ^^ Butter and Eggs '^ 
(JLineria lineria), or '^ Snapdragon '^ {Antirrhinum majus), 



Preserved honey bees or, better, bumble bees, can be used by 
the student to work out the actual method of cross pollina- 
tion. Longitudinal sections of the flower can be made by 
students (provided with old safety razor blades) and a dia- 
gram made to show exactly how pollination is accomplished. 
Special reports can be written by those pupils whose interests 
lead them along this line of research. 

If the work on flowers is taken up in spring, field work 
should result in the collection of jack-in-t he-pulpit, oak, wil- 
low, skunk cabbage, grasses, and also many wild flowers 
which show special adaptations for cross-pollination. In 
autumn, the butterfly weed. Salvia, turtlehead, and various 
composites show wonderful adaptations. Original investiga- 
tion on simple problems of this kind have been found by the 
writer to be the best means of stimulating certain better 
prepared students to take an abiding interest in this work. 
Two or three sample investigations are given here that might 
be used by the student as a form in making reports on other 
flowers. Stevens's Introduction to Botany, D. C. Heath and 
Company, New York, has several suggestive studies of pol- 
lination by insects in autumn. The following directions 
might be used as forms for the preparation of other similar 

Suggested Laboratory Studies 

The Evening Primrose {Oenothera biennis). — The habitat of this 
flower is dry fields, roadsides, or waste places. The yellow flowers are 
found in long, upright, densely crowded clusters. A flower cluster in 
which the individual flowers have no flower stalks or pedicels, \\ith one 
main axis to the cluster, is called a spike. Notice that young and old 
flowers and fruits are all on the same cluster. Where are the youngest 
flowers in the cluster? Is there any flower at the end of the main stalk? 
Could 3'ou determine in advance the length of the flower cluster? Such 
a cluster is said to be indeterminate. Why? 

Study a single open flower. Note the calyx and corolla. Are the 
parts distinct? How many petals do you find? Notice that there are 


eight stamens and that the stigma is four-parted. Cut the ovary in cross 
section, and see how many locules (spaces) there are. 

When a flower has each circle of parts, as the sepals, petals, stamens, 
and pistils, made up of a certain number of divisions, or when they 
appear in multiples of that number, the flower is said to be symmetrical. 
Here we see a striking example of symmetry in a flower. 

The chief attraction to insects is the nectar, which is formed in nectar 
glands at the base inside the slender tubular corolla. Information is 
given to the insects of the contents by a faint, sweet odor. This flower 
is not visited by many day-flying insects. Can you determine the names 
of any that do come by day? At night the flower opens more widely 
and the scent becomes much more noticeable. Moths are its chief 
night visitors. The moth's long proboscis is thrust into the flower and 
quickly withdrawn, but usuall}^ a little pollen is carried off on the palps 
(projections on the sides of the head). This may be left on the next 
flower visited. 

Try to determine what other insects, if any, visit the evening primrose 
at night. 

Draw a single flower split open lengthwise to show the position of the 
parts, and especially any adaptations for insect pollination. Look for 
any special means for the prevention of self-pollination. Label all the 

Moth Mullein {Verhascum blattaria). — The moth mullein is one 
of the most beautiful weeds. Few blossoms are found at any given 
time. The plant flourishes on dry, waste land, along roadsides, and in 
open fields. It was introduced into this country and has become 
common here and in Canada. 

The flowers are found in a long, loose raceme. A raceme is like a 
spike, except that each flower has developed its ovm flower stalk. Has 
this cluster yellow or white flowers? Into how many parts is the calyx 
divided? The corolla? Is the corolla perfectly regular? Notice the 
five stamens. Is there anything peculiar about the filaments? Are they 
all of the same length? 

In spite of the fact that the flower is called moth mullein, it is not 
polHnated to any extent by moths. Bees and flies are the chief pollen 
bearers. Bees which alight on this flower do so for the purpose of 
collecting poUen. This they usually gather from the short stamens, 
while they cling to the longer ones. As the bee lights on another flower, 
the pollen on the under side of the body is transferred to the stigma of 
this flower. 

Draw the flower from above, t^^dce natural size. 


Jewelweed {Imyatiens hiflora). — One of the most prevalent of all 
our brookside flowers is the jewelweed. It well deserves its name, a 
pendant orange jewel. This flower is very irregular in shape. Are the 
flowers single or in clusters? The sepals as well as the petals are colored. 
The former are three in number, one of which is sacklike in shape and 
contracted at one end into a spur. The petals are also three in number. 
Open the flower. Notice how short the filaments of the five stamens are. 
Make a note of their position with relation to the pistil. Would self- 
poflination be possible in this flower? 

If it is possible to study jewelweed out-of-doors in its native habitat, 
it will be found that humming birds are the visitors which seem best 
adapted to cross-pollinate this flower. A careful series of observations 
of the cross-pollination of this flower might add much to our knowledge 
regarding it. 

Jewelweed has the habit of producing (usually in autumn) incon- 
spicuous flowers which never open but which produce seeds capable of 
germination and growth. Such flowers are said to be cleistogamous. 
In England, where the plant has been introduced, it is found to produce 
more cleistogamous flowers than showy ones, and the showy ones do not 
produce seed. There are no humming birds in England, and without 
this means of pollination, the cleistogamous form prevails. 

Make a front-view drawing of the flower of jewelweed, twice natural 

Time Allotment. — The time given to this chapter should 
be at least a week and if possible longer. One day given to a 
field trip, another day spent at work with the materials col- 
lected, one day devoted to a study of cross-pollination, and 
two periods devoted to discussion would be a minimum as- 
signment of time. 

Trips to parks and fields are especially helpful to pupils in 
cities, because thus they acquire a broader conception of the 
term ^' environment.^ For that reason especial emphasis is 
made in New Civic Biology to field trips. Young citizens 
should see a reason for the inclusion of large sums in a city 
budget for the purchase and maintenance of parks. This trip 
should indirectly give him reasons which later will justify his 
obligations as a taxpayer and a citizen. 





New Unit Objective. — The object of this chapter is first 
to give the child a prehminary view of the larger problera 
outlined in the four foUow^ing chapters concerned with plant 
growth and nutrition. Then the concept of the cell as a unit 
of structure should be imparted and the very important con- 
cept of fertilization in its relation to the development of the 
plant. Problems on pages 169-172 of the New Laboratory 
Problems might well follow Chapter V, if the teacher desires, 
and the exercises on fertilization introduced after studying 
the structure of a flower. Experience has shown that the 
sequence followed in New Laboratory Problems works out well. 

Materials. — Any simple plant or animal tissue can be 
used to demonstrate a cell. Epidermal cells may be stripped 
from the epidermis of the frog or obtained by scraping the 
inside of one's mouth. The thin skin between the layers of 
an onion stained with tincture of iodine answers well, as do 
thin cross sections of a young stem, such as the stem of the 
bean or pea seedling. One of the best places to study a tissue 
and the cells of which it is composed is in the leaf of a green 
water plant, Elodea. In this plant the cells are large, and noL 
only their outline, but also the movement of the living matter 
within the cells, may easily be demonstrated. It is sometimes 
necessary to warm the slide and preparation, in order to see 
the movement. For a demonstration of the stages of mitosis 
probably the best material to use is that of the cells of the 



growing root tip of the onion. Excellent stained material may 
be obtained from any of the biological supply houses. Shull, 
Principles of Animal Biology, ^McGraw Hill Book Company, 
New York, and Densmore, General Botany, Ginn and Com- 
pany, New York, have excellent diagrams explaining animal 
and plant mitosis. 

Time Allotment and Suggestions. — A time assignment of 
from two to three periods should be given to this chapter, 
depending on the school equipment and the interests of the 
teacher. Some teachers will prefer to use this material inci- 
dentally to the development of the subject of plant growth 
and nutrition. Most young teachers with only college prepa- 
ration and no training school preparation, place too much 
emphasis on cytolog}" and attempt college work in high 
school. Needless to say, this is unwise. No course in ele- 
mentary biology should depend upon the microscope for more 
than incidental use. It is not necessary for children to see 
and draw cells under the microscope, for all too often they 
have little or no idea about what it is all about and become 
bored with overmuch detail. The concept of the cell as a 
unit of structure may be illustrated by pointing out a distant 
brick building. Ask the class what they would see if it were 
close at hand (i.e., the stones or bricks of which the entire 
building is made). Then draw an analog}' of what we can see 
with the unaided eye and with the compound microscope. 
Modelling clay, given out to see whether the concept of the 
cell has gone over, will often do more good than an entire 
period spent in "" playing with a new precision instrument.'' 
After all, we are interested in having students learn what a 
cell is and what it does; not in drawing or describing the 
fine structure of a cell or the mechanism by means of which it 
divides. Cytological details have little place in secondary- 
school biology. 


The Underlying Philosophy of the Unit. — One of the essen- 
tial reasons for placing biology early in the school curriculum 
is that as an experimental science it makes for straight think- 
ing. If any one chapter in this book lends itself to logical 
development, it is the chapter that follows. All laboratory 
work here outlined builds, step by step, the general concepts 
of the necessity for food, for digestion of food, and for the 
oxidation of food in the release of energy. 

In applying the laboratory technique of this chapter, the 
teacher must bear in mind that a few experiments, performed 
carefully and with control conditions given, are worth far 
more than several experiments carelessly performed. Make 
the laboratory hours center around two or three key demon- 
strations. Bear in mind, also, the difference between an 
experiment and a test, the latter being an aid to a proof, 
rather than a proof. Take time to demonstrate the test, in 
order to make it valid. 

Food tests are shown incidentally, as they should be, in 
connection with the main problem of food in its relation to a 
young plant. All tests, as tests, are subordinated to the main 
problems as outlined above. Thus the pupil gets incidental 
information about certain factors of the environment of the 
young plant by means of association. Throughout this en- 
tire chapter a conscious effort should be made by the teacher 
to correlate the processes which go on in the young develop- 
ing plant with the same fundamental processes which go on 
in the human body. Thus, experimental proof lays a founda- 
tion for the later work in human physiology. 



The work of the laboratory^ should center around three 
different units: First, the structure of seeds; second, the 
tests for the organic nutrients in connection with the work of 
digestion in the growing seed; third, the factors necessary^ 
for germination. Naturally, the difference in kinds of work 
performed makes for disjointed thinking unless the teacher 
takes care to lead and organize the thinking. 

The Time Allotment. — The teacher is warned that unless 
several of the experiments and projects referring to the fac- 
tors concerned in germination are prepared in advance, the 
time consumed in some laboratory work vdW be far in excess of 
the time allotment. Such experiments are: 1, proof that oxi- 
dation takes place in growing seeds ; 2, the necessity of oxygen 
for germination; and 3, the conditions necessary for the ac- 
tion of enzymes. One day should be sufficient for studying 
the structure of seeds, one day for the food tests, one day to 
demonstrate oxidation and digestion in seeds, and one or two 
days for class discussion can be made enough; though, 
naturally, a longer time allotment can be used to advantage. 

In connection with this chapter, Duggar, Plarit Physiology, 
The IMacmillan Company, and Osterhaut, Experiments with 
Plants, The Macmillan Company, are most useful books of 
reference for both teacher and pupils. 


The Keynote of the Chapter. — The principles of diffusion 
and of osmosis, two of the most difficult concepts the child 
has to grasp, are the keynotes of the work of this chapter. 
The practical side is seen in reference to the capacity of soils 
for holding moisture and to the kinds of soil necessary for 
the growth of crops. The root as an organ of absorption 
should be demonstrated fully, with individual laboratory work 
on root hairs as structural organs, so that pupils may realize 
the extreme delicacy of these absorbing organs. 

A ^ C D £ F 

Experiment to show the kind of soil which best 
retainswater: A, gravel; B,sand; C, barren soil; 
D, rich soil; E, leaf mold; F, dry leaves. 

Experiments. — Many simple devices to show capacity of 
different kinds of soil for holding water and to illustrate the 
'' run-off '^ can be made by an^^ ingenious boy in the class. 
The one shown in the accompanying diagram can be modified 
by using quart fruit jars with large corks into which have 
been inserted glass tubes of any given diameter. Good ref- 
erences can be obtained from Hodge, Nature Study and Life, 
Ginn and Company; Osterhaut, Experiments with Plants , or 
Duggar, Plant Physiology, The Macmillan Company. 




The Pocket Garden. — The pocket garden described on 
page 62 of New Laboratory Problems in Civic Biology is an 
invaluable aid in showing the effect of gravity, the effect of 
moisture and the growth of root hairs. Plant radish or mus- 
tard seeds in pocket gardens and a growth of root hairs al- 
most certainly will result. Every pupil should be required to 
make a pocket garden and perform the laboratory work 

Pocket Garden. Side and end views. 

described in New Laboratory Problems, Lacking a crop of 
root hairs from this source, pocket gardens may easily be 
obtained by placing moist green or red blotting paper within 
Syracuse watch glasses, sowing each container with a few, 
six to a dozen, mustard or radish seeds. Stack up the con- 
tainers so as to exclude dry air and prevent evaporation. 
Within 24 to 48 hours root hairs should be produced. The 
relation of either dry air or water to growth of root hairs can 
easily be demonstrated by exposing the roots within a given 
watch glass to either of the above conditions. 

Diffusion and Osmosis. — The subjects of imbibition, dif- 
fusion and osmosis require much thought on the part of the 
pupil and teacher. Perhaps the best way to approach the 
problem is to show diffusion of gases. Close all windows and 
doors and stop ventilating fans, then open a bottle of some 
substance having a characteristic odor and have students 
note the instant they detect the odor. Those nearest the 


bottle should recognize the odor first. Then show diffusion 
in liquids by allowing a crystal of fuchsin or eosin to diffuse 
through water in a beaker. The egg experiment given in 
New Laboratory Problems on page 66 illustrates osmosis, 
which is the passage of water only through a semi-permeable 
membrane from the point of its greater to the point of its 
lesser concentration. Diffusion in solutions means the pas- 
sage of the solutes in the water from the point of greater to 
a point of lesser concentration of the solutes. It wdll then be 
seen that although the two phenomena are separate, they 
may go on together. 

An Artificial Root Hair. — A very excellent artificial root 
hair may be made in the following manner : Pour a very little 
liquid celloidin (gun cotton dissolved in ether and alcohol) 
into a test tube. ^^ New skin '^ may be used for this purpose. 
After pouring it in the tube, slowly pour out excess, and re- 
volve the remainder in the tube so that it forms a thin, even 
film over the inner surface of the tube. As soon as the ether 
has evaporated, pour a little water into the tube and carefully 
work the membraneous film loose from the test tube. Now 
make a mixture of molasses and water, about half and half, 
or take the white of egg and fill the membraneous bag with 
the mixture. Fix a one-holed rubber cork containing a 
glass tube tightly into the open end of the bag, suspend the 
apparatus in a jar of fresh water, and you have an apparatus 
which will give the class a very good idea of how a root hair 
takes in water. Similar experiments made with starch paste 
will show that starches do not pass through the membrane. 

Time Allotment. — The work outlined in this chapter, if 
full laboratory work is done, will take at least a week of school 
time. Much time can be saved, however, by having the 
pocket gardens prepared by pupils two or three days before 
they are needed in the laboratory. The demonstration with 
Sach's solution should be started at least two weeks before 


the time needed for demonstration, and the demonstration to 
show how fluids travel in the root and stem should be pre- 
pared a day or so in advance. 

Three single periods devoted to demonstration and exper- 
iments and two for discussion should adequately cover this 
chapter, although much more time can be used advanta- 


The Importance of Photosynthesis. — Experimental work 
may be made to carry almost the entire plan of this chapter. 
The fact that plants make food of raw food materials may be 
demonstrated by a series of logical experiments which leave 
no doubt of the steps taken or the factors involved in this 
wonderful process. The whole world depends on the process 
of photosynthesis. A concept of what the process is and 
what it does for mankind should be known and understood 
by every pupil when he has finished the exercises which fol- 
low. Laboratory problems having rigid adherence to the 
logical sequence of events which culminate in food making 
and food storage in the leaf, will result in increased power on 
the part of the pupil and a beginning of appreciation of what 
a developed problem really means. To the critic who would 
object to giving so much time to the processes involved in 
photosynthesis we would say : Starch making and food mak- 
ing may be related in a vital manner to the interest of urban 
children by drawing their attention to the economic impor- 
tance of cereal and other staples furnished by plants, and by 
making clear the tremendous importance of green plants as 
food-makers on the earth. To country children the value of 
the material is obvious. 

Laboratory Work Important. — The laboratory work in- 
volved in this chapter is far more important than a considera- 
tion of the text. This is one of the big opportunities for the 
enthusiastic teacher to lead students to see the value of the 
method of science. And the work involved in demonstration 
can be divided among a number of pupils, so that no extra 
burden is thrown on the teacher. The one laboratory exer- 



cise on the gross and fine structure of the leaf should come 
rather early, so that the necessary knowledge of structure will 
precede that of function. Fresh green leaves of '^ mono- 
cots ^' and ^' dicots " can always be obtained from a florist, 
if the work comes too late in the fall to obtain outdoor ma- 
terial. Stained cross-sections of lily or other leaves may be 
obtained from any good supply house. Stomata are easily 
demonstrated by stripping the epidermis from the leaf of an 
onion, jonquil, or other '^ monocot.^' If no microscope is 
available, teach the fine structure by means of careful study 
of charts, models or diagrams. 

References. — The demonstrations are rather completely 
described in Xeiv Laboratory ProhlemSy and do not need to 
be further spoken of here. If time permits, all factors con- 
cerned in photosynthesis should be considered, and controls 
should be used in each experiment. If only one demonstra- 
tion is given, it should be on the light factor in photosyn- 
thesis. Suggestions for the preparation of these or similar 
experiments can be obtained from such books as Duggar, 
Plant Physiology, The Alacmillan Company, Chapter IX, 
or Osterhaut, Experiments with Plants, pages 182-203, 
The Macmillan Company. Andrews, Practical Course in 
Botany, American Book Company, New York, also is a use- 
ful reference book. Coulter, Barnes and Cowles, Textbook of 
Botany, pages 363-380, American Book Company, gives an 
authoritative discussion of photosynthesis. Gager, Funda- 
mentals of Botany, P. Blakiston's Son and Company, gives 
a simple account of the various steps in starch-making, 
an account which is easily understandable by high-school 

Time Allotment. — The time to be devoted to Chapter 
VIII, with a review of the preceding chapters on plant nu- 
trition and discussion of Chapter IX, should be about two 
weeks. The actual laboratory work on the structure of a 


leaf can be completed easily in two single periods. Another 
two or three periods are needed, however, for the demonstra- 
tions, discussions and ^' write-ups. '^ The subject of photo- 
synthesis is so intimately bound up with the material found 
in the three preceding chapters and the one following that 
some time should be spent in general discussion that will 
correlate all this work. 


The Stem a Pathway for Liquids. — The work of this 
chapter is intended simply to develop the concept that the 
stem is an organ of circulation; that it puts the upper part 
of the plant, the food-making organs, in connection with the 
lower part of the plant, the organs which absorb raw materials 
for food making and which act 
as a storage for manufactured 
food. This chapter, however, 
gives an opportunity for the 
teacher who wishes to make 
clear distinction between the 
structure of the " monocot " 
and '^ dicot " stem to do this. 
See the problem entitled 
'^ Groups of plants told by the 
structure of their stems." In 
general this should be a part of 
the information acquired by 
pupils and can best be worked 
out at this point. 

The teacher must not lose 
sight of the fact that the chief 

object of this chapter is to Experiment with a wiUow twig to show 
show how these types of stems that food material passes down in the 
, ,7 n (> ^ inner bark. 

may act as pathways tor tood 

and water, and to show the other functions they demon- 
strate. The experiment with the willow twig, illustrated in the 
accompanying diagram, shows clearly the pathway taken by 



foods, but this demonstration is difficult to make work, 
especially in the late autumn. Set it up some weeks in 
advance of the time it is to be used, otherwise you will obtain 
no results. Care must be taken to allow a good start of 
roots before the stem is girdled above this first growth of 
roots. This growth will take at least three weeks with favor- 
able temperature conditions; longer, if the room is cold at 
night. This experiment, therefore, should be started shortly 
after the beginning of the fall term to be ready for demon- 
stration at the desired time. 

Time Allotment. — It has previously been shown that this 
chapter is best used as a summary in connection with a re- 
view of the preceding four chapters. This is a very good 
place to have mid-term examinations, although the time used 
thus far in the course will probably exceed the 9 to 10 weeks 
allotted to the first half of the semester. But this makes an 
excellent place to stop, to review, and to take stock of the 
material gone over thus far. 



Unicellular Organisms in the Laboratory. — It is easy, 
with the introduction given by Chapter V, to demonstrate 
some of the reactions of a single-celled animal, and to compare 
them with those of a single-celled plant. Discussion of the 
structure of a cell and its various functions as an organism 
make this chapter of great interest to all pupils, especially as 
the marvels of the world revealed by the microscope are 
placed at their disposal. In order to have pupils really appre- 
ciate the wonders of the unicellular organisms, they should 
see at least two or three different one-celled plants and ani- 
mals. Pleurococcus is obtainable, winter or summer, from the 
bark of trees which have a damp exposure. A hay infusion 
is always easy to make and usually gives us paramecia, or 
some equally large form. To keep the infusion in condition 
for use, add from time to time a little beef broth or raw corn 
meal. This gives food for bacterial growth and in turn sup- 
ports the life of the protozoa in the infusion. 

How to Obtain Amoeba. — It is impossible to predict any 
certainty of obtaining amoeba by first-hand search. The 
writer has found them most frequently by collecting mud or 
water plants from shallow, permanent ponds, and by adding 
to this material a boiled hay infusion. Then place it in 
shallow glass dishes, with enough of the green algae to make 
a balance. Amoeba should be found after a week or more, 
usually in the debris at the bottom of the dish. 

A sure way of obtaining material is to have it shipped 
aUve from one of the various supply houses which make 



a specialty of dealing in living material. Powers and Com- 
pany, Lincoln, Neb., has been found by the writer to deliver 
amoeba in satisfactory condition and at a reasonable rate. 

Time Allotment and Suggestions. — The time devoted to 
Chapter X and XI together should not exceed one week. 
Most of the laboratory time should be spent in examination 
of paramecia or amoeba. An almost indefinite time might 
be spent in this work, but the author has found too much time 
allotment here becomes laboratory work of a type not well 
fitted to the interests of immature pupils. 

In schools where microscopes are not available, a demon- 
stration, or, better, a school " movie " may be given. Such an 
educational movie is ''How Life Begins''; it is obtainable 
from many State Health Departments. A good screen dem- 
onstration is worth far more than laboratory work at- 
tempted with a poor culture of unicellular organisms. 


Construction vs. Destruction in Nature. — The gap between 
plants and animals is not a wide one. The bridging of the 
gap is undertaken by means of the exercises of this chapter. 
First the pupil is led to see the general interdependence of 
organisms on the earth; then the dependence of one specific 
kind of organism upon another specific organism; and then 
he is brought face to face with the fact that there are in 
general two kinds of organisms, one constructive, the other 
destructive. These, he learns, may both live in a small 
aquarium jar and they may both be single cells. One of the 
most enlightening demonstrations is that of a single slide of 
pond debris, showing scores, sometimes literally hundreds, of 
tiny plants and animals, representing many different species. 

Symbiosis. — The work of this chapter, then, is largely an 
application of some of the facts learned about unicellular 
organisms in Chapter X. A collection of organisms to show 
symbiosis and the working out of the application of symbiosis 
in its larger aspects is the purpose of this chapter. This can 
as well be done by a study of the diagrams on pages 103, 104 
and 105, New Civic Biology, as in any other way. Needham 
and Lloyd, Life of Inland Waters, Comstock Publishing Com- 
pany, Ithaca, N. Y., and certain of the chapters in Ward and 
Whipple, Manual of Fresh Water Biology, John Wiley and 
Sons, New York, are invaluable to the teacher. 

Time Allotment. — This chapter can be used in connection 
with Chapter X, and the allotment of periods depends very 
largely on the equipment of the laboratory and the interests 
of the students. If microscopes are available, several days 
may be spent profitably; but in the small school this chapter 
may have to be largely a study of a balanced aquarium, with 
application of the diagrams found in the New Civic Biology. 
This study should not take more than two days. 




Another Preview. — As in certain of the previous chapters, 
the student here takes a preUniinarv^ view of the general 
'problem that should stay with him during the rest of his course 
nbiolog>\ i.e., that of adaptation to function in the human 
Vody. A genenU survey gives an uiitial interest in problems 
which are solveil later: it defines the future problems and 
marks the beginning of some new concepts. Certain structures 
of the body, such as bones and muscles, for example, are now 
treated and dismissed, not because of their non-importance, 
but because of the time demanded by the more practical 
questions relating to dietaries and bodilj^ nutrition. Teachers 
must remember that we have to '* hit the high spots " in a 
course in genend biology' and that a successful coiu'se is large- 
I3' a case of leaving out unessentials and placing emphasis on 

Frogs as Material for Experiments. — Since this chapter 
is in the nature of a preview and since some laborator^^ ob- 
ject should be used to give tangible evidence, the frog is used 
:is a means of comparison with the human organism. Frogs 
are eas\^ to obtain, may be kept in the laboratorj^ almost in- 
definitely, lend themselves to simple experiments, and, al- 
though they do not illustrate the mammalian tjpe, have 
certain advantages in being smaller and cleaner than rats 
or rabbits. Laborator^^ work on the frog, in connection with 
the study of human biolog>% is verA^ desirable, as it gives con- 
crete examples of the material only illustrated by charts, or 
at best, by models of the hmnan organism. 



The Making of Laboratory Helps. — An excellent basis 
for the work on the human organism can be obtained from a 
study of any good dissectable mannikin. A good teaching 
project, used by some teachers, is to have each member of the 
class, at this point, plan to make, as a home project, a paste- 
board and paper mannikin, each set of organs to be drawn, 
colored and attached to the skeleton (which is made first) as 
the work on a particular part of the body is completed in 
class. This project also makes an excellent review. In con- 
nection with this work I might mention the '' Froggikin/' 
first used in the laboratories of the Oak Park High School, 
Oak Park, 111., and now made available for school use by 
the Biology Department of that school. 

Time Allotment. — It here becomes necessary to make a 
choice of laboratory material. This part of the book should 
be completed by the first week in December, if possible. 
Enough exercises are given in Neic Laboratory Problems to 
keep students busy from two to three weeks, if all work is 
done carefully. The writer has found it bes^t to plan one or 
two days of laboratory comparison between the living frog 
and man, then to devote two or three days to discussions, 
basing the work on the context of the chapter. Holmes, 
Biology of the Frog, The Macmillan Company, and Martin^ 
Human Body, Advanced, Henry Holt and Company, are sug- 
gested as reference material, for the teacher. 


The Importance of Dietetics. — The practical work in this 
chapter, although outlined to take not more than two to 
three weeks, has such possibilities of interest and importance 
that more time may well be spent in its consideration. The 
working out of an individual or family dietary with an esti- 
mate of the cost is an exercise that appeals strongly to the 
average pupil. Food economy, the vitamin content of food, 
and the balance of a ration are practical topics needed in 
every household to-day. 

Correlations Possible. — The practical correlation of w^ork 
in biology with that of home economics and domestic science 
is found here. It might well be worth while to expand this 
side of the course with girls, so that several weeks be devoted 
to the practical side of dietetics. Much of the experimental 
work can be transferred to the laboratory of home economics 
or to the home. 

Practical Projects. — There is much of practical value for 
both boys and girls in this chapter, and individual project 
work may be found for each sex. Boys are more interested, 
perhaps, in the making of a simple bomb calorimeter and in 
the explanation of the respiration calorimeter. The experi- 
ments of Atwater with the respiration calorimeter should be 
explained and pictures of the apparatus shown so that the 
pupils may be impressed with the delicacy and magnitude of 
the experiments. This respiration calorimeter is described 
by Professor Atwater as follows : 

''Its main feature is a copper-walled chamber 7 feet long, 4 feet wide, 
and 6 feet 4 inches high. This is fitted with devices for maintaining and 
measuring a ventilating current of air, for sampling and analyzing this 



air, for removing and measuring the heat given off within the chamber, 
and for passing food and other articles in and out. It is furnished with 
a folding bed, chair, and table, with scales and appliances for muscular 
work, and has telephone connection \^ith the outside. Here the subject 
stays for a period of from three to twelve days, during wliich time care- 
ful analyses and measurements are made of all material which enters the 
body in the food, and of that which leaves it in the breath and excreta. 
Record is also kept of the energy given off from the body as heat and 
muscular work. The difference between the material taken into and 
that given off from the body is called the balance of matter, and shows 
whether the body is gaining or losing material. The difference between 
the energy of the food taken and that of the excreta and the energy given 
off by the body as heat and muscular work is the balance of energy, 
and if correctly measured, should equal the energy of the body material 
gained or lost. With such apparatus it is possible to learn what effect 
different conditions of nourishment vriU have on the human body. In 
one experiment, for instance, the subject might be kept quite at rest, 
and in the next do a certain amount of muscular or mental work with 
the same diet as before, then by comparing the results of the two, the 
use wliich the body makes of its food under the different conditions 
could be determined: or the diet may be sKghtly changed in the one 
experiment, and the effect of this on the balance of matter or energy 
observed. Such methods and apparatus are very costly in time and 
money, but the results are proportionately more valuable than those 
from simpler experiments." 

The experiments of Chittenden should also be explained. 
(See Chittenden, Xutrition of Man.) 

Atwater's Calorimeter. (See diagram, p. 52.). — Atwater's 
respiration calorimeter, an apparatus for determining the in- 
come and outgo of energy, and respiratory products of the hu- 
man body, under varying conditions, consists of an air-tight 
copper chamber, insulated from the surrounding air by a zinc 
casing and three wooden ones, with dead-air spaces between. 
It is provided with a door and a window for the introduction 
and removal of food. Closely attached to the outside of the 
copper wall are 304 thermoelectric couples (A) which, elec- 
trically, report the temperature of the calorimeter chamber 
to the observer's table (B). The temperature of the chamber 



is maintained as nearly constant as possible by a current of 
cold water, pumped by the electric pump (C) through the 
cooling tank (D) to (£'), where its temperature is taken just 
before it enters the large-surface, winged pipes around the 
chamber. When the water emerges at (F), its temperature 
is taken again and its volume and flow measured at the water 
meter {G) before it returns to the pump. From these data, 
knowing the rise in temperature and the amount of water so 
raised, the amount of heat developed within the calorimeter 
may be computed. The flow of water may be regulated so 
as to carry off any amount of heat developed. 

In order to assure accurate work on the respiratory prod- 
ucts, the system of ventilation is also a closed one. The 
vitiated air is drawn out by the pipe (H), and then through 
a double row of vessels of sulphuric acid (/, /, /, /) to re- 
move water vapor, and vessels of soda lime (J, J, J, J) to 


remove COo, to the electric pump (/v). From here it is re- 
turned through pipe (L) to (M), where any deficiency in oxy- 
gen is noted and remedied from a tank of that gas before it is 
pumped through the regulating pans {N,N) into the 

Determination of the burning values of foods leads some 
students to determine the mechanical equivalent of the calo- 
rie. This is 3060 foot pounds. When we remember that one 
horsepower is 550 foot pounds per second, we can realize the 
relatively large amount of energy locked up in certain foods. 

Study of Metabolism. — If you have a ph3'sician in your 
community interested in dietetics, ask him to demonstrate 
to a small group the working out of the respiratory quotient 
in studies of metabolism. Then have reports on this given 
by some prospective doctors in the class. An excellent little 
book to use in this connection is McCallum, Food, Xutrition 
and Health, published by the author from Baltimore, Md. 
Both girls and boys are interested in the practical side in- 
volved in the making of a personal dietary under different 
conditions of work. Most interesting is the personal study 
of a balanced dietary with its individual applications. 

Use of the 100-Calorie Portion Tables. — In order to have 
this work properly done, the teacher should take considerable 
trouble to explain the tables found in New Laboratory Prob- 
lems and the methods of using them. There should be no 
fixed '^ recitations '' from the text, but both teacher and 
students should make the class period one of mutual service 
in getting the students' results as nearly correct as possible. 
After the dietary is worked out, a laboratory period should 
be devoted to the correction of the dietar}^, particularly the 
reasons underlying the corrections. Sherman's book, Chem- 
istry of Food and Xutrition, published by the Macmillan Com- 
pany, is invaluable to the teacher in this correction work, 
and in preparing for the work of the recitation. 


Time Allotment. — Two weeks of school time should be 
alloted to this unit of work, both because of its practical im- 
portance and because of the relative slowness of the labora- 
tory work. Many opportunities for project reports, such as 
^' Food Economy in My Own Home '^ or '^ Feeding a Grow- 
ing Boy or Girl ^' will occupy two or three days devoted to 
this purpose. All of the laboratory work is so valuable and 
the sequence is so closely worked out that it is difficult to 
say how much, if any, to omit. Plan to make the work of 
this chapter of relatively great importance. 


Objectives. — The object of this chapter is two-fold. 
First, to show the weakness and strength of the present Pure 
Food and Drugs Act ; second, to show the dangers connected 
with alcohol and certain '' patent " medicines. The chapter 
is closely associated wdth the one just preceding it and 
should be discussed in connection with the subject of foods 
and dietaries. 

Value of Charts. — No adequate work on the Pure Food 
and Drug Act can be done w^ithout reference to the splendid 
set of charts provided by the American Medical Association, 
Dearborn Street, Chicago. These charts will be supplied to 
schools at a very small cost and will serve as a basis for at 
least one laboratory exercise. Hang up the charts or place 
them on the tables in the laboratory; then, by means of 
questions such as are given in New Laboratory Problems, 
have the class determine the dangers from certain ^^ patent " 

One great value of these charts is that they show, by 
means of tabular statements, the strong and the weak points 
in our present Pure Food and Drugs Act. Although this act 
has done much good, there is still much left to be accom- 
plished. The American ^Medical Association is working to 
this end. Wide-awake teachers can do much valuable work 
in showing young people how they, in turn, can help to 
make this law more effective. 

Alcohol and Narcotics. — One difficulty in teaching the 
dangers of alcohol and narcotics is that children know plenty 
of cases where alcohol is taken and smoking is habitual 



and observe that no apparent harm comes of it. For that 
reason all dogmatic teaching of '' temperance physiology " 
defeats its own ends. It is better to attack the problem 
scientifically, to show the effect of alcohol on protoplasm, 
along with such a poison as mercury bichloride, and then to 
show from statistical study w^hat group statistics tell us. 

Time Allotment. — The time devoted to the chapter should 
be one or two days, according to the amount of work done in 
the laboratory. 


Objectives. — One of the purposes of this chapter is to 
make plain the chemical changes that take place during the 
process of digestion. The concept of an enzyme and of the 
work of a catalyzing agent is most important for the student. 
Show the student pepsin or pancreatin and explain how they 
are prepared for the trade. 

Preparation for Digestion Experiments. — A very in- 
teresting project would be to have some member of the class 
extract the peptic enzyme from fresh tripe. Obtain a stomach 
from a freshly killed pig, wash it carefully, dry carefully, 
then pass it through a meat chopper. Place in fruit jar with 
4 or 5 times its bulk of strong glycerin. Keep for at least a 
week in a cool place, stirring frequently. Filter by squeezing 
through several thicknesses of cheesecloth. For use add to 
10 c.c. of the glycerin 90 c.c. of .2 ^c hydrochloric acid; filter, 
and use in test tube with cooked white of egg or other protein. 

A glycerin extract of pig pancreas may be made in a similar 
manner, as the glycerin dissolves out the tripsin. 

How to Demonstrate Digestion. — The experiments given 
in New Laboratory Problems have been found to be much 
more useful for immature minds of first-year students than 
a longer series of conditions, which, although necessary for 
the fulfillment of the technically correct experiment, never- 
theless are extremely confusing to the beginner. We here 
deliberatel}^ sacrifice some of the factors in the experiment in 
order to maintain interest and to obtain understanding. 

Absorption. — The absorption of foods is a difficult sub- 
ject, even for adults, so experimental work is not technically 



treated. In most of the experiments control conditions are 
sometimes omitted, not because I believe they should be, but 
because I believe young people of high-school age are not 
always able to comprehend the significance of such factors. 
We cannot expect our teachers, much less our pupils, to be 
expert physiological chemists; but we can obtain and under- 
stand some of the data involved. It is with such an end in 
view that the rather curtailed lists of important happenings 
in the process are here outlined. 

Structure and Function. — Another important series of 
concepts are those concerned wdth the structure and function 
of the digestive organs. Here again the frog serves a purpose, 
as its digestive tract may well serve as a comparison with the 
digestive system of man. The hygiene of the mouth, the dan- 
ger of focal infections, the hygiene of feeding — all are im- 
portant concepts of habit-forming value. 

Time Allotment. — The time spent on this chapter will 
largely depend on the teacher's ability and the equipment of 
the school. A minimum of one week and a maximum of two 
weeks would probably be a fair estimate. If only one series 
of experiments can be made, better results are likely to be 
obtained w4th artificial pancreatic juice than with artificial 
gastric juice. Stile, Nutritional Physiology, W. B. Saunders 
Company, Philadelphia, or Martin, Human Body, Advanced, 
Henry Holt and Company, will be of value to the teacher. 


Some Problems. — To prove that the blood contains liquid 
food and to show how blood is made are the first considera- 
tions of this chapter. The uses of the corpuscles may well 





be shown in part by experiment. The problem solved with 
the apparatus shown in the accompanying diagram is easy 
to set up and to manipulate and shows very graphically, by 
means of the color change, the part played by the red cor- 
puscles as oxygen carriers. Such an experiment is not difficult 
nor does it require much apparatus. Proof of circulation of 
the blood centers around two experiments: evidence that 
the heart is a force pump and the demonstration of capillary 
circulation in a tadpole's tail or the web of a frog's foot. A 



frog board for use in this experiment is easily made by cutting 
an area about 1 inch square from a piece of cigar box. The 
frog's leg or the tadpole's tail is stretched over this area and 
placed directly under the low power objective of the com- 
pound microscope. Interesting and vital laboratory work 
may be done by comparing graphs of the heartbeat of mem- 
bers of the class when at rest, after mental work, and after 
physical work. Interesting correlations between physiologic 
age, sex, and rate of heartbeat may also be worked out in 
graphic form. Use block graphs for this purpose. 

New Fields in Physiology. — The importance of hormones 
and antibodies in the blood is a new and fascinating field. 
The endocrine glands and their work are subjects which 
young people, particularly those just entering adolescence, 
find of vital interest. Serum therapy also is just as interesting 
and vital. 

Teaching Suggestions. — In this chapter part of the labo- 
ratory work is of anatomical and part is of physiological 
nature. A comparison of fresh corpuscles of the frog and of 
man shows most contained structures; stained material is 
cheap or easy to make, if one has time. Models for the study 
of the heart as a force pump are useful, but not necessary. 
A fresh beef heart will do equally well. Capillary circulation 
makes a most interesting demonstration, the web of a frog's 
foot, a tadpole's tail or a fish's tail is equally good. This 
demonstration should be made, even if all other laboratory 
work is omitted. At least one period should be devoted to a 
discussion of the work of the endocrine glands. Harrow, 
Glands in Health and Disease, E. P. Button and Company, 
New York, is interesting and elementary enough for high- 
school students to understand. The disease-resisting func- 
tions of the blood are worth another period of discussion, if 
the teacher will have students look up references in the 
library for reports. Many interesting and fairly accurate 


papers have appeared of late in current magazines. For the 
teacher, Broadhurst, How We Resist Disease^ J. B. Lippincott 
Co., Philadelphia, is authoritative, interesting and up-to- 
date. This book should be in every high-school and public 

Time Allotment. — In point of time, this chapter can be 
adequately covered in less than a week, although much more 
time could be given to it. By having reports on home work 
incidental to the text assignments, the work could be reduced 
to three days, although this shortening would be unwise. 


Suggestions for Experiments. — The subject of respira- 
tion gives ample opportunity for simple experiments which 
can be performed by the pupil. Changes of blood within the 
lungs are easily demonstrated. Mechanical factors in respira- 
tion are easily shown with home-made apparatus. Changes 
of air within the lungs and the individual lung capacity of 
the students may be performed as outside class experiments 
by the individual pupils. The experiment showing the func- 
tion of the diaphragm is easy to perform and shows clearly 
that ^^ filling the lungs with air " is a passive act. 

The text has several teaching units in the form of diagrams 
that should be made class problems. A demonstration of 
the Schaefer method of artificial respiration should be re- 
quired as outside work by everyone in the class, as this does 
not lend itself to demonstration in the classroom. Doubtless 
the Department of Physical Training will cooperate on this 

Ventilation vs. Humidity. — The subject of proper ventila- 
tion affords innumerable opportunities for practical experi- 
ments by the pupils. Care must be taken, however, that 
pupils do not gain WTong impressions from experiments with 
the burning of candles within a box. Recent investigations 
make it certain that carbon dioxide, as a factor in ventilation, 
is less to be reckoned with than the humidity and heat factors. 
Obtain and read the series of experiments worked out by 
the New York State Ventilation Commission. Experiments 
with wet and dry bulb thermometers should be tried in closed 
rooms to show the increase in the water content of air and its 



effect upon the human organism. Other expermients, doubt- 
less, will commend themselves. 

Valuable Project Work. — Experiments to show proper 
methods of dusting and cleaning should be tried at home 
and reported by groups of pupils. A supply of sterile Petri 
dishes, containing sterile culture media should be avail- 
able for these experiments. Give out the dishes to members 
of the class with directions to expose the plates at a given time 
for a short period of tmie, (from one to three minutes in each 
case). Have the plates kept in nearly uniform conditions of 
temperature and light until they are again brought to school. 
Have one unexposed dish left at school, as a control. After 
the dishes are collected, keep them in a dark, warm place (as 
incubator) for about three days and then have the class ex- 
amine them and write conclusions. In this way more ground 
may be covered in a given time and more individuals inter- 
ested in the work. The work on excretion from the laboratory 
side can be omitted if time is lacking. 

Time Allotment. — The entire chapter, with demonstra- 
tions, both class and home, should not take more than a week. 
Of this allotment, give three periods to demonstrations and 
laboratory work, the other two being devoted to oral discus- 
sions and review. 



Purpose of the Chapter. — The purposes of the following 
exercises are: first, to show the development in complexity 
of sensory structures in animals; second, to show that a per- 
son is dependent upon his organs of sense in order to interpret 
what goes on about him, thus to get in touch with the factors 
of his environment; third, to give him a glimpse of the great 
intricacy of the mechanism and complicated structures we 
call the nervous system. 

Laboratory Suggestions. — A review of some tropisms will 
serve to introduce the work of this chapter. Euglena is a 
form that is quite often found in school aquaria. It is not 
difficult to obtain it in almost pure culture in a small roadside 
pond in autumn and to keep it alive in the laboratory all 
winter. It may be recognized by the opaque green color of the 
ponds in which it is formed. A demonstration of the sense 
organs of some invertebrates leads naturally to a comparison 
with sensory structures in some vertebrates. This type of 
work goes most naturally as an oral discussion, with specimens 
at hand for observation and comparison. Models of the hu- 
man eye and ear are easily obtainable from one of several 
good supply firms and should be in the possession of every 
high school. Lacking these, study the eye in a mirror and 
compare with the diagram in the text. 

Time Allotment. — The chapter can be covered in from 
three to four class meetings, the first of which should be de- 
voted to sensory structures in lower animals. 



Objectives. — This chapter may be made one of the most 
vital and practical in the book. It is intended to show first 
the relation between instincts and habits, for we have assumed 
the psychology that habits are acquired reflexes and modified 
instincts. The greatest emphasis, however, should be placed 
on habit forming. Children in high school are at the stage 
of easy habit forming and need help in making a happy 
choice of traits. The exercises outlined in New Laboratory 
Problems will be vital and useful. 

In the class discussion, if classes are not mixed, there often 
is opportunity to talk over with individuals the matter of 
right sex habits. Sex physiology should only be taught in- 
directly, for we have not yet laid the foundation which ap- 
pears in later chapters dealing with reproduction; but here 
is an excellent opportunity for the wise and tactful teacher. 
In this chapter also is an opportunity to show by the graphic 
method some economic arguments against the excessive use 
of alcohol. 





Fundamental Biological Processes. — Two fundamental 
processes stand out in the teaching of biology. These are 
nutrition and reproduction. The chapters just covered have 
dealt largely with the first process. Several of the chapters 
to follow deal with the second process. This chapter aims 
to show the method of and reasons for asexual reproduction 
or propagation in plants and for sexual reproduction in both 
plants and animals. 

Budding and Grafting. A, bud; B, stock; C, 
budding completed; D, two scions in place; E, 
grafting completed by coating of wax. 

Materials and How to Get Them. — Material for labora- 
tory study is varied and should be obtainable in the very 
early spring when this chapter will be taken. The demonstra- 
tion showing how plants propagate themselves can be made 
with preserved material in part. In an agricultural region 
emphasis should be placed on methods of budding and 
grafting. Material illustrating these methods is easily ob- 
tained from any nurseryman. 



Material showing regeneration is not so easy to obtain. If 
flatworms are to be used, the worms should be operated upon 
several weeks prior to the time for the demonstration. They 
may be kept in shallow glass dishes in the laboratory with 
a fresh running water supply. They may usually be obtained 
from dealers in living material, such as the Southern Biologi- 
cal Supply Company, Xew Orleans, La., or Powers and Com- 
pany, Lincoln, Neb. 

Material for showing conjugation in spirogyra is best ob- 
tained in the fall and kept in 4 ^c formalin until needed. It 
can be best obtained in masses of pond scum that looks some- 
what yellow or yellowish green. Examine several lots with 
the compound microscope and you will be almost sure to 
obtain it in conjugation. Mount material in glycerin and 

Pollen tubes may be obtained from liliaceous plants 
grown in the hot house. The metamorphosis material is in 
the nature of review and need only be referred to incidentally. 
In some locations the eggs of hyla and possibly other frogs 
are laid as early as ^Nlarch, hence the}^ may be available for 
study. If not, preserved material can be used. The excellent 
Escher series of models may also be available for this purpose. 
(See any good supply house catalog.) Where funds are scarce, 
the models can be made from '' modeling wax," or plasticene. 
Coated with shellac or varnish, they will stand rather rough 

One of the most interesting demonstrations is that of the 
developing chick. Fertile eggs are usually obtainable in 
late February or early jNIarch. If the school has no incuba- 
tor, ask permission to use one in the neighborhood. The 
third day chick with its beating heart is a demonstration 
that never fails to arrest attention and teach its lesson. 

Time Allotment. — The time allotment for this chapter 
will depend entirely on the amount of time spent in labora- 


tory work. If all of the demonstration and laboratory work 
is attempted, two weeks will be none too little. A well- 
rounded survey of the reproductive processes in plants 
and animals can be given in about a week. One period may 
be devoted to the reproduction in spirogyra. Follow this 
with a discussion period in which some forms of asexual 
propagation and regeneration are shown. Then discuss the 
development of pollen and fertilization of the flower, the 
latter concept worked out from charts or board drawings. 
Follow this with a lesson on metamorphosis. Devote the 
last lessons to the development of a bird, with comparison 
with a mammal. This time allotment will be quite satis- 


How to Teach Classification. — The object of this chapter 
is to give the pupil a bird's-eye view of the plant and animal 
kingdoms. This is not done for the sake of accurate classifi- 
cation, but simply to impress him with the wonderful diver- 
sity and complexity of form and structure in the living world. 
Any work in classification should be taken incidentally, as 
this chapter is primarily intended to show that division of 
labor and complexity of structure in plants and animals go 
hand in hand. The exercise in determining the place of 
animals and plants in the evolutionary scale should be largely 
an exercise in determining the amount of division of labor 
shown in a given group. It is needless to say that the work 
can best be done by means of type collections in a museum or 
in the laboratory. The chapter also gives opportunity to 
discuss the important comparison of analogy and homology. 

The Fish as a Type. — This chapter may also well be used 
as an introduction to the physiology and structure of a fish. 
Spring is a good time to obtain living fish. Goldfish are sold 
in stores early in March and may be kept in the labora- 
tory at this time. At least one class discussion, with con- 
tributions from reference books by some students, should 
be given to man's place in nature. 

Time Allotment. — The time allotment for this chapter 
again depends upon the amount of time devoted to laboratory 
work. One laboratory period can well be spent on analogy 
and homology. Another period of laboratory work should 
be used in studying the living fish. Still another day can be 
spent in elementary classification, or, better, a trip to a mu- 



seum. Under no circumstances, however, use the Chapter 
as material for an exercise of the pupils^ faculties for mem- 
orizing! Show students how to use the key, but do not at- 
tempt to have them memorize more than the simplest 
classification. Emphasize the underlying principle of classi- 
fication — i.e., homology and analogy ^ — which is used to 
determine relationships. On the other hand, class discussion 
of man^s place in nature is valuable and a period should be 
given to it. One week is ample time allotment for this 



The Subject vs. Environment. — In these days when the 
apphcation of biology to human welfare is so often made the 
chief aim of a course in biology, it is refreshing to know that 
there are teachers who believe in logic and in the building of 
a foundation before proceeding to w^ork upon the top of the 
building! We have reared the superstructure in a course in 
biology which has placed emphasis on functions of plants and 
animals, with especial emphasis on man as an animal. Ef- 
fect of the factors of the environment, for good or for evil, is 
the natural, logical step next to be taken. The work on bacte- 
ria in relation to disease is one of the steps in this sequence. 

Subject Matter vs. Experiments. — In point of interest and 
of instructive value, this subject matter is of vital importance; 
the experiments, however, are not always absolutely to be 
relied upon. The extreme delicacy with which some of the 
factors work, the fact that we are dealing with micro-organ- 
isms w^hich cannot be handled except in bulk, the fact that 
most school laboratories have neither equipment nor means 
to obtain some of the necessary materials, make absolutely 
accurate experiments in bacteriology sometimes out of the 
question. On the other hand, these experiments are most 
worth while from a pragmatic viewpoint. Furthermore, 
pupils are usually more interested in these than in any other 
experiments. And if a simple control is used, the work can 
be made accurate enough to give results that will stand in 
the schoolroom, even though they might not in the bacteri- 
ological laboratory of a university. The method of science, 



however, can be used, and all reasonable care and accuracy 
can be given to the performance of any experiments in New 
Laboratory Problems, 

The informational content of this chapter is certainly of 
the widest possible importance. An entire course could well 
be devoted to the numerous experimental questions which 
present themselves. In this and other chapters in this Part, 
or Unit, we find material that will be carried away by pupils 
and used practically in their homes. Here is a real function 
of a course in Civic Biology. 

How to Obtain Culture Media. — Materials for the study 
of bacteria (nutrient agar or gelatin) may be obtained from 
any chemist, from manufacturing chemists, and from the 
local Board of Health. Directions for making culture media 
are given in New Laboratory Problems^ but the work need 
not be given up because of lack of proper apparatus or labora- 
tory facilities. Ask your local physician or your Board of 
Health for help in obtaining culture media, if the school can- 
not give you the necessary help. 

Time Allotment. — Laboratory problems and demonstra- 
tions should make the bulk of the time assigned to this 
chapter. There are eight or ten problems, each of which is 
important and each of which demands some reading outside 
of the book. Conn, Bacteria, Yeasts and Molds of the Home, 
Ginn and Company, will be of great assistance, while Broad- 
hurst's new book on Bacteria and How They Grow, J. B. 
Lippincott Company, is of value to the teacher. Buchanan, 
Household Bacteriology, and Marshall, Microbiology, P. 
Blakiston's Son and Company, are of much value for reports 
in connection with this chapter. Probably from two to three 
weeks is the conservative time allotment. 


Use of Graphs in Health Work. — Although the laboratory 
work connected with this chapter is not pure biology, it is 
of great educational value. A knowledge of graph construc- 
tion should be a part of the equipment of every thinking 
citizen. The teacher should study carefully the diagram on 
page 207 of New Laboratory Problems and be able to explain 
the mathematical reasons for each step in the construction 
of a graph. And the application of this know^ledge to the 
interpretation of vital statistics is of still more practical 
worth. Some of the suggested laboratory work can be worked 
out at home but reported upon in school. Vital statistics 
obtained from the weekly bulletins of the Pubhc Health 
Service or the monthly reports of your State Board of Health 
will give countless data usable for graphs which can be made 
either the basis of individual class problems or of home work. 
Endless variety of graphic work is thus available. Such 
graphs might be made into permanent form by some of the 
artists of the class, to be used as charts in succeeding years. 

Time Allotment. — A time allotment of at least a week is 
desirable here. More time can be used, of course, if extra 
graphs are worked out for class presentation. 



Values of Life History Studies. — If this chapter is as- 
signed in the early spring, Httle or no insect Hfe is available 
for study. On the other hand, excellent life histories of the 

Life history of two mosquitoes: culex 
(left), anopheles (right), the malarial 

fly and the mosquito are now purchasable and can be used as 
demonstration material. Some teachers may prefer to take 
up the life history of the fly and the mosquito in the autumn 
at the time of the field trip with Chapter IV. But unless the 


de:\ioxstrations vs. diagrams 75 

study of the life history of fly and mosquito leads directly to 
the project of fl}' and mosquito extermination in a given lo- 
cality, class discussion is just as valuable as laboratory work. 
The fetish of the laboratory can be carried too far, especially 
if students are left to flounder through experiments without 
discussions to help them to see a purpose. 

Demonstrations vs. Diagrams. — Demonstration of ma- 
larial parasites in blood corpuscles, and of trypanosomes, 
tapeworm, trachina and hookworm should all be incidental 
to class discussion. A few more advanced students, or those 
interested in a future study of medicine can study these slides 
as extra credit work. One important feature of this part of 
the course is to be sure that the members of the class realize 
that the parasites studied need in most cases a double host in 
order to complete the life history. Take away all anopheles 
mosquitoes and malaria will be a thing of the past! Prevent 
the rat and the ground squirrel from coming in proximity to 
man and the danger of bubonic plague will be gone! A careful 
study of text and figures, with close questioning on the mean- 
ing of different parts of such figin^es, is of far more value than 
a microscopic study of the parasites which caused certain 
diseases. The teaching unit on page 279, Xew Civic Biology ^ 
if carefully worked over and explained in detail, will be of far 
more value than the demonstration of the parasite in the 
corpuscles of man. Folsom, Entomology, P. Blakiston's Son 
and Company, ^Marshall, Microbiology, P. Blakiston's Son 
and Company, and Chandler, Animal Parasites and Human 
Disease, John Wiley and Sons, should be used freely by the 
teacher in preparation for this chapter. 

Time Allotment and Suggestions. — The actual time de- 
voted to the chapter will depend on school equipment and 
preparation of the teacher. From the standpoint of practical 
civic value no chapter has a more important content. Op- 
portunities for outside reports on such scientists as Ross, 


Walter Reed, Nagouchi, on the work of the Rockefeller 
Foundation in hookworm extermination, etc., will make this 
chapter vital. Perhaps the best way to teach such a chapter 
is to treat it as a series of topics. Devote one period to 
malaria and yellow fever, with project reports; one period to 
the house fly, its control; etc. Discussion of other insect- 
borne diseases might take still another period. One to two 
periods can be devoted to other disease-causing animals, 
provided outside reports are made, otherwise one period will 
suffice. For outside reference, magazine articles (which can 
be looked up w^ith the aid of Poole's Index and the Readers' 
Guides at the library) are most valuable. A life of Walter 
Reed makes an excellent book report. The Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company, 1 ]Madison Ave., publishes an ad- 
mirable series called '' Health Heroes " w^hich contains es- 
pecially valuable material for use with this chapter. Refer 
students to Rosenau, Preventative Medicine and Hygiene, D. 
Appleton and Company, for concise material on many par- 
asitic diseases and their carriers. This book should be found 
in any good community library. 


The Value of Outside Work. — The exercises in this chap- 
ter are intended to be suggestive and may be extended in- 
definitely as time may permit. To make this work of most 
value, as much collateral reading as can be made available 
should be used in addition to the definitely planned home and 
laboratory work outlined in the following chapter. Field 
work is of especial importance in this connection as it shows 
the pupils what the city departments are doing toward the 
inspection of factories, care of food supplies, inspection 
of milk, both in production and in sale, provision for a safe 
and ample water supply, disposal of wastes, and general care 
of the public health. An effort should be made to have each 
pupil procure a copy of the Sanitary Code of the community 
in which he lives and then by careful study to see which sec- 
tions are commonly broken or ^^ honored in the breach ^^ by 
the public or by health officials. Concerted action on the part 
of the younger members of a community may bring about 
decided results for the betterment of a given neighborhood. 
Thus our biology courses may become, in truth, courses in 
civic biology. 

Projects. — As has been said, the outside work which this 
chapter might initiate is endless. An entire course might be 
built around the suggestions outlined. Practically, however, 
the chapter material can adequately be covered in from one 
to two weeks, depending on the type of community and the 
ability of the students. Much of the laboratory work is of 
the nature of demonstration experiments, on which written 
notes should be required. Several of the projects will take 



days, if not weeks, to complete. Much of the work of the 
chapter, in order to be of value, should be simply starting 
the student on future reports. In this connection it is well 
to devote a day every two or three weeks to such project 
reports. If supervised study periods are used, the teacher 
can give much in the way of suggestion and comment. Other- 
wise it is well to set aside part of a laboratory period every 
week or so for help in project work and for project reports. 

Time Allotment. — The actual division of time on the 
chapter might be as follows: one day, improvement of the 
home; one day, improvement of the school, factories and 
public buildings; one day, milk and water supplies; one day, 
other municipal activities, including work of a Board of 
Health; and one day, reports on projects. Laboratory work 
covering two days or more can easily include most of the 
important suggested problems in New Laboratory Problems. 
The work started should be checked up from time to time, 
and well on toward the end of the semester two days might 
well be spent in hearing reports on such topics as ^' A Sanitary 
Survey of my own Block ^' or ^' A Study of the Work of the 
Local Board of Health.'' Such work, if it is made interesting 
and is undertaken seriously, if the purpose of it is made 
clear, counts in future citizenship. 



Forestry in Everyday Life. — The practical value of work 
on forestry is unquestioned. Every pupil of high-school age 
should have not only some knowledge of our forests and their 
uses, but also a little first-hand experience in recognition of 
some common trees, their habitat, and their use to man. 
The methods of cutting lumber and trim also give a practical 
side which is of real interest. 

The most important thing to do here is to make students 
see the value of living trees, the part they play in com nunal 
and economic life, and the crying need of conservation of 
forests. It is not necessary for this chapter to be given in the 
exact sequence in which it is placed, and it is suggested for 
large communities, where trees are seen only in parks and 
along streets, that this chapter be saved for Arbor Day. 
Tree planting is worth while in any community, however, 
and reasons for having more trees are evident. 

Time Allotment. — In a community where lumber is an 
economic factor, tree surveys and forest surveys are impor- 
tant. Two days are sufficient time for most communities 
and a week would be ample time where the forest products 
play an important part in the life of the community. If 
desired this chapter can be held for treatment with Chapter 
XXX. If tree identification is desired, much more time will 
be needed. The instructor must be the judge here. 



Value of Varying the Work. — This chapter which is in 
part intended to sum up the preceding chapters from the 
practical aspect, may be made largely in the nature of reading 
and reports. It is wise when teaching a course in biology 
(or any other subject) to vary the work as much as possible, 
both to maintain interest and to prevent stagnation of 

Practical laboratory work at the time of year for which 
this chapter is planned, especially in small communities, 
should be out-of-doors; for this reason, the project of a weed 
survey is of great value. Weeds may be collected by the 
student and identified in the laboratory by means of Georgia, 
Manual of Weeds, The Macmillan Company, or Farmers' 
Bulletin 86 which may be obtained in quantities free through 
your Congressman. Weeds may be collected in September 
and October, pressed and mounted in Riker mounts or in 
home-made frames made of window glass and adhesive tape 
with a background of tinted blotting paper. The diagrams 
in Farmers' Bulletin 86 are useful for identification and com- 
parison. Several states, notably Iowa and Kansas, publish 
weed manuals, which are very useful. 

Time Allotment. — The actual teaching time needed for 
this chapter is from two to four days, depending on the 
amount of identification attempted. 



What to Teach. — This chapter, if desired, may immedi- 
ately follow Chapter XX, although it is perhaps better teach- 
ing psychology to take up the discussion at this point. The 
chapter sho\YS in part the ways in which yeasts and molds 
live, and in part is a review of some economic relations of 
fungi to man. It will be well, therefore, to divide the chapter 
into two sections. Laboratory work should be the center 
for discussion of yeasts and molds; classroom conferences 
for the applied biology in the latter part of the chapter. For 
extra laboratory suggestions, and for reports and conference 
material, no better book can be found than Conn, Bacteria, 
Yeast and Molds of the Home, Ginn and Company. Although 
several years old. it contains an abundance of excellent ma- 
terial for laboratory experiment and class discussion. ]\Iuch 
incentive and suggestion for simple project work will be found 
in its pages. Buchanan. Bacteriology for Students in General 
and Household Science, will also be found of much value in 
preparation for classroom discussion. 

Suggestions for Time Allotment. — The time allotment 
may be from one to two weeks, depending upon the amount 
of demonstration, laboratory and project work undertaken. 
Almost endless projects, each valuable from the practical 
outlook, may be planned. ]\Iost teachers, who wish a bal- 
anced course, will feel that a week is about the minimum 
time allotment. Field work on shelf fungus and chestnut 
canker can be given as extra credit project work. Conditions 
favorable and unfavorable for mold growth should be done 
as home work by pupils and demonstrated in the laboratory. 



One period should be allowed for this. If the laboratory has 
an equipment of microscopes, another period can be devoted 
to a study of mold, although this kind of work has little 
significance to young students. Another day should be de- 
voted to a study of yeast, with most emphasis placed on 
experiments to determine conditions possible for the growth 
of yeast. 

Experimental work here is of doubtful value in these days 
of '' Prohibition. " A laboratory period can well be used to 
determine the most effective preservatives. To this time al- 
lotment at least two days should be added for class discussion, 
and more time will be needed in an agricultural community 
in order to discuss some practical problems in crop rotation 
and to demonstrate root tubercles. These are easily obtain- 
able in the spring from clover, alfalfa and particularly from 
soy beans. 


How to Use this Material. — It is to be expected that the 
teacher will wish to refer to much of this work at the time 
work is done on a given animal form. Pedagogically, how- 
ever, it is desirable that the work as planned should be varied. 
Interest, particularly of the younger pupils, is thus held. 
Outhnes prepared by the teacher to be filled in by the stu- 
dent are desirable, because they lead the pupil to individual 
selection of what seems to Mm important material. Oppor- 
tunity should be given for laboratory exercises based on 
original sources. Students should be made to use reports of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, the Biological 
Survey, various state reports, and others. Mimeographed 
blanks prepared after the manner of those found in New 
Laboratory Problems will be found useful. 

Special Reports. — Special home laboratory reports may 
be well made at this time, for example: determination at a 
local fish market of the fish that are cheap and fresh at a 
given time. Have the students give reasons for this. Study 
conditions in the meat market in a similar manner. Other 
local food conditions may also be studied first hand. This 
chapter is intended to be a practical resume of the use of 
animals and the harm done by animals. Some of the work 
is intended as a change from pure laboratory work to that of 
reference reading. But some extremely important work 
outlined in this chapter should be taken when the season 
will allow, in the laboratory, in the field, or at home. This 
and the following chapter may be made a center for bird 
study, as it should come in the school year at a time when 
birds are migrating and are most plentiful. 



Field Work. — Here again the work of the chapter natu- 
rally divides itself into two general parts. Reference reports 
and class discussion, much of which is in the nature of re- 
views, and the work on birds should largely be in this field. 
The Biology Club can be made effective at this juncture by 
means of field trips and reports made by interested members. 
There is almost always one boy in a class w^ho is an enthu- 
siastic field naturalist. Make use of him as a leader on hikes 
and for first-hand description of some of the less common 
birds, their habitat and their habits. Children are enthu- 
siastic bird lovers, and in small communities much more 
than is printed in the pages of the book can be obtained by 
trips afield. One early morning bird walk is worth hours of 
discussion with bird skins or mounted specimens in the class- 

Time Allotment. — If the teacher decides at this time to 
study birds from the standpoint of form and structure, a 
week or more may properly be spent on this chapter. Other- 
wise the work should be largely of the nature of field work, 
reference, and review^ with summaries brought in by the 
pupils as home-work reports. From two to three days may 
thus be spent profitably. 



How to Best Teach Conservation. — Probably everyone 
has heard of conservation, but few have practiced it in 
any phase. Fewer still realize what changes have taken 
place in our flora and fauna within the past few decades be- 
cause of lack of conservation methods. One has only to talk 
with some of the older inhabitants of a given community to 
realize some recent changes. Ask them about conditions of 
the locality today and half a century ago. Gather data on 
what pollution has done to streams or rivers in your locaHty. 
Discuss the changes brought about through carelessness and 
ignorance, the damage done to our forests and wild flowers. 
Point out the yearly destruction of wild life by hunters and 
'' sportsmen." Then have a recitation or two on this chapter 
with reports gleaned from first-hand evidence of " old inhab- 
itants." The lessons will mean much more under such con- 

Hornaday, Our Vanishing Wild Life, and Wild Life Conser- 
vation in Theory and Practice, published by the New York 
Zoological Society, and Pack, School Book of Forestry, pub- 
lished by the American Tree Association, are invaluable 
means of instilhng interest and giving extra report material. 
The journal of the Isaac Walton League, Outdoor America, 
is also a force for conservation that ever}' thoughtful person 
should know. 

Time Allotment. — Two days can well be given to this 
chapter alone, or if the teacher prefers, it can be used in con- 
nection with the chapter on Forestry. 




Some Important Concepts. — This chapter is perhaps the 
most difficult in the book. In order for children to under- 
stand the working of heredity as shown by MendeUs Laws, 
it is necessary for them first to understand the meaning 
in a practical way of the terms variation and heredity. The 
class exercise worked out on page 269 of New Laboratory 
Problems, w^ith the method of measurement of members of 
the class, gives practical and concrete material for under- 
standing these concepts. The next concept is the chromosome 
theory of inheritance of unit characters. Some knowledge 
of Morgan's work on drosophila is helpful in teaching this 
theory. Morgan, Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity, Henry 
Holt and Company, is the best and most authoritative work 
on the subject. A study of the teaching diagram on page 382, 
New Civic Biology, should be taken up next, in order to show 
the necessity for maturation before fertilization and subse- 
quent cell division. Careful study of the diagram will show 
the mathematical exactness with which this principle works 
in nature. 

Mendel's Law. — To introduce the subject of MendeFs 
Law, use the scientific operation of chance in flipping coins. 
The chances are even that the coins will fall '^ heads '^ or 
^^ tails '^ or ^^ heads and tails,'' and in a large number of 
throwings this will usually be shown. The characteristic 1- 
2-1 Mendelian formula will usually work out in this manner. 



Attempt to identify the formula of segregation in the F2 gen- 
eration with the algebraic formula for the square of a binomial. 
This may help in establishing the idea of fixity of the law. 
And in attempting to show the heredity in the di-h^^brid, work 
out the ^' checkerboard " on the board with the class, getting 
them to give the possible combinations by using colored 
counters or pieces of chalk. 

Time Allotment. — All this demonstration takes time and 
it is easily seen that at least a week is needed for this chapter, 
especially if any laboratory work is performed. At least one 
period, perhaps two, will be needed to work out the curve of 
variation of height in the class and the correlation between 
height and weight. Another period can be given to selection, 
another to hybridization. At least one period will be needed 
to work out Mendel's Law. Then one to two discussion 
periods are desirable. It will, therefore, take a full w^eek, or, 
with Chapter XXXII, about two weeks to complete the work 
as outlined. 


The Value of Eugenics. — The contents of this chapter 
will probably prove of more interest and, if seriously taken 
up by teacher and pupils, of more lasting value than any 
other part of the course. The immense significance of vari- 
ation and heredity and the application of these factors in 
eugenics certainly make a theme of vital interest. Direct 
teaching of sex hygiene in the public secondary school is not 
recommended, not only because of lack of preparation on 
the part of teachers, but also because of the limited intimacy 
between teacher and pupil, making work even with small 
groups impracticable. Besides, the proper place for such 
direct teaching is in the home. It is, however, the function 
of biology to teach the primary facts known about reproduc- 
tion and heredity as applied in plant and animal breeding and 
thus indirectly give the the pupil a foundation for proper sex 
education. On these facts the child of today. will build for the 
experiences of tomorrow. 

Reference Reading Especially Important. — To make this 
work of lasting value, reports, home projects, and much 
reading should be done. Any high-school student can read 
Guyer, Being Well Born, Bobbs-Merrill Company, or the 
last three or four chapters of Walter on Genetics, The Mac- 
millan Company. Every boy and girl should read Goddard's 
dramatic story of The Kallikak Family, published by The 
Macmillan Company. This fictitious name given to the 
ancestors of little Deborah comes from two Greek words 
meaning good-bad and characterizes the heritage she re- 
ceived from her far off ancestors, Martin and the nameless 


feeble-minded mother of Martin, Junior. Out of this read- 
ing on inheritance in humans certain students may, per- 
chance, be left in an introspective state of mind. To lead 
this state of mind to useful and not harmful introspec- 
tion, the work of the year may well culminate in a serious 
surve}^ of one's own abilities and vocational possibilities. If 
Xew Chic Biology is to be practical, here is one way in which 
it can serve the purpose of using scientific knowledge and 
applying it to daily life. 

Vocational Guidance a By-product. — To make best use 
of the chapter, this work should be taken up as a series of 
discussions, using as many personal examples as possible. 
Students should be urged to gather data and such data 
should be discussed in class. Here at the end of the course 
in biology both students and teacher are on terms of personal 
intimacy and often affection. The real teacher should 
make this chapter count, especially in its implications in 
vocational guidance. When the school is large and a teacher 
is appointed as vocational adviser, work with that instructor. 
In any event, make this chapter become a real contribution 
to the life of the student. 

Time Allotment. — This chapter follows as a true se- 
quence to the preceding chapter and should be taught as 
part of it. Three or four days is an ample allotment of time. 


How to Use this Chapter. — There are some secondary 
school teachers who would teach biology through biography. 
While this view has much to commend it, it is of necessity 
unpractical, for we could not repeat the experiments for 
which these great names stand. We can, however, refer to 
these names as we take up work with which they were once 
associated. This is the way to use this chapter and the books 
of reference listed at its close. Refer to a man of science 
when work with which his name is connected is discussed or 
performed in the laboratory. Therefore no time allotment 
is offered for this chapter. 




Additional Suggestions for the Course. — The foregoing dis- 
cussion of the text, including the suggestions for time allot- 
ments to each of its chapters, may now be supplemented by 
more detailed or topical outlines of a year's course in biology. 
The first outline is designed for a course beginning in Sep- 
tember; the second, for a course beginning in February and 
ending in the following January. 

However, these outlines, which will be found on pages 92 
to 105 of this manual, are tentative only and are intended 
for the young teacher who may not know which topics and 
experiments are most valuable. Assignments will differ in 
different localities, with the age and sex of students, with the 
teacher's individual preparation and interests. There are 
teachers who will prefer to lay more emphasis on types and 
less on life histories and information. Such teachers should 
select from the New Laboratory Problems work on insects, 
fish, or frog such as seems most worth while, meantime keep- 
ing to the general assignments given for the text. 

Much work in a text can be given in the form of reading 
or oral reports, if time presses and work, unfortunately, be- 
comes hurried. In general, the text. New Civic Biology , offers 
a year's course in biology which experience has shown can 
be followed by the average high school. 


In this outline an attempt has been made to reduce the course to 
such topics as has been shown by experience can easil}' be carried by the 
class of average ability in a five period per week program. 

biology i 

Second week. Why Study Biology? Relation to human health. 
Relations existing between plants and animals. Relation of bac- 
teria to man. Uses of plants and animals. Conservation of plants 
and animals. Relation to Hfe of citizens. The factors of the environ- 
ment. (For classes that have not taken an introductory course in 
science considerably more time must be spent in demonstration 
work at this point.) Plants and animals in relation to their 
environment. Dependence of plants and animals upon the factors 
of the environment. Laboratory: Study of a plant or an animal 
in the school or at home to determine what it takes from its 
environment. Demonstrations of oxidation, the composition of air, 
etc., for classes that have not had any introductory science. 

Third Week. What is Beixg Alive? Tropisms, their value to liv- 
ing things — Demonstrations — What is an adaptation? Adaptive 
structures compared with adaptive acts. 

Fourth Week. Some Relations Existing between (Green) Plants 
AND Animals. Field trip planned to show that insects feed upon 
plants; make their homes upon plants; that flowers are pollinated 
by insects. Insects lay eggs upon certain food plants. Green plants 
make food for animals. Other relations. (Time allotment. 
One day trip, collecting, etc.; two days' discussion of trip in all 
its relations.) Elementary identification of groups of insects seen 
on field trip. Bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, beetles, possibly flies 
and bugs. Make a careful study of the locality you wish to visit. 
Have a plan that the pupil may be told about beforehand. 




First week. Study of a Flower, Parts Essential to Pollination. 
Adaptations for insect pollination worked out in laboratory. Study 
of bee or butterfly as an insect carrier of pollen. Names of parts of 
insect learned. Drawing of a flower, parts labeled. Drawing of 
an insect, outline only, parts labeled. Careful study of some fall 
flower fitted for insect pollination with an insect as pollinating 
agent. Some examples of cross-pollination explained. Practical 
value of cross-pollination. 

Parts of plants, functions; organs, tissues, cells. Demonstration 
cells of onion or scrapings from inside of cheek. How cells 
form others. 

Second and Third weeks. How Seeds are Formed. What makes a 
Seed Grow. Bean seed, a baby plant, plus food supply. Food, 
what is it? Organic nutrients, tests for starch, protein, oil. Show 
their presence in seeds. (Demonstrations.) Germination of bean 
due to (a) presence of foods, (6) outside factors. What is done with 
the food. Release of energy. Examples of engine, plants, human 
body. Oxidation in body. Proof by experiment. Oxidation in 
growing plant, experiment. Respiration a general need for both 
plants and animals. The corn grain. Parts, growth, food supply 
outside body of plant, how does it get inside? Digestion, need for. 
Test for grape sugar. Enzymes, their function. Action of diastase 
on starch or sahva (ptyalin) on starchy foods. 

Fourth week. What Plants take from the Soil, How they do 
This. Use of root. Influence of gravity and water. Absorption. 
Root hairs. (Demonstration.) Pocket gardens, optional home 
work. Each pupil must work on root hairs from actual specimen. 
How root absorbs. Diffusion and osmosis. Experiments to demon- 
strate diffusion and osmosis. W^hat root hairs take out of soil. 


First week. How Green Plants make Food. Structure of a green 
leaf. Cellular structure demonstrated. Microscopic demonstration 
of cells, stoma, air spaces, chlorophyll bodies. Sun a source oi en- 
ergy. Effect of Ught on green plants. Experimental proof. Starch 
made in green leaf. Light and air necessary for starch making. 
Proof. Protein making in leaf. By-products in starch making. 
Proof. Respiration. 


Second week. The Circulation and Distribution of Food in 
Green Plants. Uses of bark, wood. What part of stem does food 
pass down? Willow twig experiment. Summary of functions of 
living matter in plants. Comparison of ''monocot" and '^dicot" 
stems. Economic uses of green plants. Reports. Mid-term Ex- 

Third week. Simplest Organisms Defined. Paramecium or 
Amoeba (Demonstration in laboratory) — Mutual give-and-take 
between plants and animals, as illustrated in a balanced aquarium. 
The carbon and nitrogen cycles. 

Fourth week. Physiological Division of Labor — The frog as a 
vertebrate type. (Lab. study begins external structure.) The 
human body. Comparison with frog. Skin, muscles, skeleton. 
No details — correct posture and hygiene emphasized. 


First week. First Value of Food. Vitamins and Mineral Content. 
Meaning of calorie. The 100-caloric portion, its use in determining 
a daily or weekly dietary. Standard dietary as determined by 
standards of Atwater, Chittenden and Voit. Relation of diet to 
age, sex, size, weight, etc. The nutritive ratio. 

Second and Third weeks. Study of Pupil^s Dietary. Planning ideal 
meals. Individual dietaries for one day required from each pupil. 
Discussions and corrections.' The family dietary. Relation to cost. 
Alcohol, narcotics and • ' ' patent ' '-medicines. 


First and Second weeks. Digestion. The digestive system in the 
frog and in man compared. Drawings of each. Glands and en- 
zymes. Internal secretions and their importance. Demonstration 
of glandular tissues. Digestion of white of egg by gastric juice. 
Digestion of starch with pancreatic fluid. Functions of pancreatic 
juice. Microscopic examination of emulsion. Reasons for digestion. 
Part played by diffusion and osmosis. Where and how foods are 
absorbed. The structure of a villus explained. Course taken by 
foods after absorption. Function of liver. 

Third week. Blood-making the Result of Absorption of Food. 
Composition of blood, red and colorless corpuscles, plasma, blood 
plates, antibodies. Microscopic drawing of corpuscles of frog's and 


man's blood. The heart and lungs of a frog demonstrated. Heart of 
man a force pump, explain with use of force pump. Demonstration 
of beef's heart. Circulation and changes of blood in various parts of 
body. Work of cells with reference to blood made clear. Capillary 
circulation (demonstration of circulation in tadpole's tail or web 
of frog's foot). 

Fourth week. Respiration and Excretion. Necessity for taking of 
oxygen to cells and removal of wastes from cells. Part played by 
blood and lymph. Mechanics of breathing (use of experiments). 
Changes of air and blood in lungs (Experiments). Best methods of 
ventilation (Experiments). EHmination of wastes from blood by 
lungs, kidneys, and skin. Cell respiration. Examinations. 


First and Second weeks. Why and How Animals and Plants 
Respond to Stimuli. Responses in simple organism. Sense or- 
gans. The general structure and functions of the central nervous 
system. Sensory and motor nerves. Reflexes, instincts, habits. 
Habit formation, importance of right habits. Rules for habit 
formation. Habit-forming drugs and other agents. 

Third and Fourth weeks. Reproduction. Kinds: grafting, regenera- 
tion, asexual growth. Reproduction in flowering plants. Develop- 
ment of typical fertilized egg. Life history and metamorphosis. 
Development of higher animals (Lab. work on life histories). 


First week. A Bird's-eye View of the Plant and Animal King- 
doms. Optional trip to museum for use of illustrative material to 
illustrate the principal characteristics of (a) a simple metazoan, 
sponge, or hydrazoan, (b) a segmented worm, (c) a crustacean 
(Decapod), (d) an insect, (e) a mollusk and echinoderm, (J) verte- 
brates. (Differences between vertebrates and invertebrates.) 
The characteristics of the vertebrates. Distinguish between fishes, 
amphibia, reptiles, birds, mammals. Man's place in the animal 
series. Two days for discussion. 

Second and Third weeks. Bacteria. What they are, where found, 
how^ controlled. (Experiments and demonstrations.) Food used. 
Factors controlling bacteria. Diseases caused by bacteria. Specific 
diseases given. 


Fourth week. Quarantine. Incubation period of disease. Immu- 
nity, active and passive. Tests used. 


First week. Relations of Animals to Disease. Casual agents and 
carriers, malaria, yellow fever. Other diseases. Flies and other in- 
sect carriers, other parasitic animals. (Life histories in Laboratory.) 

Second and Third weeks. Man's Improvement of the Environment. 
Improvement of home, of school, of community. Milk and water 
supplies. Bacterial inspection. (Tests and laboratory work.) 
Work of various city departments. Mid-term examinations. 

Fourth week. Forests and Forest Protection. Uses of wood. 
Methods of cutting (laboratory). Economic importance of green 
plants to man. Specific examples. Weeds and control work. Field 


First and Second weeks. Plants without Chlorophyll in their 
Relation TO Man. Saprophytic fungi. Molds. Growth on bread or 
other substances. Conditions most favorable for growth. Favorite 
foods. Methods of prevention. Economic importance. The part 
played by yeasts in bread making, in wine making, in other indus- 
tries. Structure of yeast demonstrated. Bacteria in relation to 
soil enrichment, with emphasis placed on the nature and necessity 
of decay. Methods of food preservation. 

Third week. The Economic Importance of Animals. Uses of 
animals: (1) As food. Directly: fish, shellfish, birds, domesticated 
mammals. (2) Indirectly as food: protozoa, Crustacea. (3) They 
destroy harmful animals and plants. Snakes — birds; birds — 
insects; birds — weed seeds; herbivorous animals — weeds. 

(4) Furnish clothing, etc. Pearl buttons, etc. (5) Animal indus- 
tries, silkworm culture, etc. (6) Domesticated animals. 

Animals do harm: (1) To gardens. (2) To crops. (3) To stored 
food; examples, rats, insects, etc. (4) To forest and shade trees. 

(5) To human life. Disease : parasitism and its results — ex- 
amples, from worms, etc.; disease carriers, fly, etc. Preventive 
measures. Methods of extermination. 


Fourth week. Conservation' and its Lessons. Pollution of streams 
and its results. A good place in which to study either life history 
and structure of fish or to devote some time to study of birds. 
Reasons for conservation of fish, birds, and other wild Hfe. 


First and Second weeks. The Factors Underlying Plant and Ani- 
mal Breeding. Study of pupils in class to show heredity and 
variation. Conclusion. Animals tend to vary and to be like their 
ancestors. Heredity, role of sex cells, chromosomes. Principles of 
plant breeding. Selective planting, hybridizing, work of Darwin, 
Mendel, and Burbank. Methods and results. Animal breeding, 
examples given, results. Improvement of man: (1) by control of 
environment, (a) example of clean-up campaign, 1913; (2) by 
control of individual, personal hygiene, and control of heredity. 
Eugenics. Examples from Davenport, Ooddard, etc. 

Third week. Reviews and examinations. 



Second ^ 



3rs I and II 










IV begin 





finish IV, C'hap. 


Second and third " 






VII, begin VIII 










IX and reviews 





X and XI 





XII begin 





finish XII, begin XIII 










finish XIII, Chap. XIV 





XV begin 





finish XV 











XVII and Examinations. 


First ^ 













XX begin 





finish XX 










XXII begin 




















XXV begin 





finish XXV and exams. 










XXVIII begin 





finish XXVIII 















XXXI begin 





finish XXXI, Chap. XXXII 




Reviews and Examinations. 




biology i 


First, Second and Third weeks. Why study Biology? Relation to 
human health, hygiene. Relations existing between plants and 
animals. Relation of bacteria to man. Uses of plants and animals. 
Conservation of plants and animals. Relation to life of citizen. 
What are the factors of the environment? Demonstration to show 
composition of air and oxidation. The cell as a unit of structure. 
Demonstration of onion skin and cells from inside of cheek. What 
is being aUve? Tropisms, their uses. Adaptations, examples. Needs 
of plants and animals: (1) food, (2) water, (3) air, (4) proper 
temperature. Study of a single plant or animal in relation to its 
environment. (Lab. work.) Problems of city government: (a) 
storage, preservation and distribution of foods, (6) water supply, 
(c) overcrowding, (d) street cleaning, (e) clean schools. Biological 
problems in community government. 

Fourth week. Reproduction. Necessity for (a) perpetuation, (6) re- 
generation. Kinds of asexual and sexual. Cross and longitudinal 
sections of ovary shown. Emphasis on essential organs. Pollina- 
tion, self and cross. Use of chart to show part played by egg and 
sperm cell. Ultimate result the formation of embryo and its growth 
under favorable conditions into young plant. 


First and Second weeks. A Bird's-eye View of the Plant and Ani- 
mal Kingdoms. Homology and Analogy. Physiological division 
of labor. Tissues, organs. Functions common to all animals. 
Illustrative material. Optional trip to museum or use of illustra- 
tive material to demonstrate the principal characteristics of (a) a 
simple metazoan, sponge, or hydrazoan, (h) a segmented worm, 



(c) a crustacean (Decapod), (d) an insect, (e) a mollusk and 
echinoderm, (/) vertebrates. (Differences between vertebrates and 
invertebrates.) The characteristics of vertebrates. Distinguish 
. between fishes, amphibia, reptiles, birds, mammals. Man's place 
in the animal series. How bacteria may affect mankind. Be- 
gin experiments to show where bacteria may be found. 

Third and Fourth weeks. Factors affecting })acterial growth. Steriliza- 
tion. Pasteurization. (Description, experiments and demonsi ra- 
tions.) Bacteria in relation to disease. Diseases caused by bacteria. 
Methods of combating. Quarantine, incubation period. Immu- 
nity, active and passive. Antiserums and their values. 


First week. Relations of Animals to Disease.. Malaria, yel- 
low fever. House flies and other insect carriers. Other parasites 
and carriers. 

Second and Third weeks. How Max May Improve His Environ- 
ment. Home improvement, care of food, wastes, etc. Civic 
improvement. Control of water and milk borne diseases. Water 
supplies, garbage disposal, etc. Work of the Board of Health. 
Study of statistical material. Mid-term examinations. 

Fourth week. The Value of Forests. (Study of wood sections, 
gross structure.) Uses of woods. Forest protection. Economic 
value of green plants. (Survey of useful and harmful plants. Study 
of weeds.) 


First and Second weeks. Destruction of Food and Other Things 
BY Mold. Home experiment. Conditions favorable to growth of 
mold. Food, moisture, temperature. Destruction of commodities 
by mold: food, leather, clothing. Destruction of foods by bacteria. 
Use and harm of decay. Relation to agriculture. Experiment. 
Conditions favorable and unfavorable to growth of bacteria: 
boiling, cold, sugar, salt. Canning. Bacteria in industries. 

Third week. The Economic Importance of Animals. Uses of 
animals: (1) As food. Directly: fish, shellfish, birds, domesticated 
mammals. (2) Indirectly as food : protozoa, Crustacea. (3) They 


destroy harmful animals and plants. Snakes — birds; birds — in- 
sects; birds — weed seeds; herbivorous animals — weeds. (4) 
Furnish clothing, etc. Pearl buttons, etc. (5) Animal industries, 
silkworm culture, etc. (6) Domesticated animals. 

Animals do harm : (1) To gardens. (2) To crops. (3) To stored 
food; examples, rats, insects, etc. (4) To forest and shade trees. 
(5) To human life. Review disease: parasitism and its results, — 
examples, from worms, etc.; disease carriers, fly, etc. Preventive 
measures. Methods of ex-termination. Use one day for laboratory 
work from references. 
Fourth week. Meaning of Conservation, its Needs. Particular 
emphasis in spring on bird study. Field trips for bird study. 


First and Second weeks. The Factors Underlying Plant and Ani- 
mal Breeding. Study of pupils in class to show heredity and varia- 
tion. Conclusion. Animals tend to vary and to be like their 
ancestors. Heredity, role of sex cells, chromosomes. Principles of 
plant breeding. Selective planting, hybridizing, work of Darwin, 
Mendel, and Burbank. Methods and results. Animal breeding, ex- 
amples given, results. Improvement of man: (1) by control of en- 
vironment, (a) example of clean-up campaigns; (2) by control 
of indi\4dual, personal hygiene, and control of heredity. Eugenics. 
Examples from Davenport, Goddard, etc. 

Third iceek. Reviews and examinations. 

First Semester 

biologv ii 


First week. Beginning Review of Factors of Environment 
AND How They Affect Plants and Animals. Tropisms and 

Second and Third weeks. Some Relations Existing between Plants 
(Green) and Animals. Field trip planned to show that insects 
feed upon plants; make their homes upon plants. That flowers are 
polHnated by insects. Insects lay eggs upon certain food plants. 
Green plants make food for animals. Other relations. (Time allot- 
ment. One day trip, collecting, etc.; two days' discussion of trip 


in all its relations.) Make a careful study of the locality you wish 
to visit, have a plan that the pupils know about beforehand. Re- 
view and hygiene of pupil's environment, 2 days. 

Fourth week. Study of a Flower, Parts Essential to Pollination 
Named. Adaptations for insect poUination worked out in labora- 
tory. Study of bee or butterfly as an insect carrier of pollen. Names 
of parts of insect learned. Elementary knowledge of groups of 
insects seen on field trip. Bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, beetles, 
possibly flies and bugs. Drawing of a flower, parts labeled. Drawing 
of an insect, outline only, parts labeled. Careful study of some fall 
flower fitted for insect pollination with an insect as pollinating 
agent. Some examples of cross-pollination explained. Practical 
value of cross -pollination. 


First week. How Seeds are Formed. Use of Stored Food by 
Young Green Plant, (a) for energy, (b) for construction of tis- 
sue. Experiment. Structure of Vjean seed. Draw to show outer 
coat, cotyledon, hypocotyl, and plumule. Test for starch and sugar 
(grape). Test for oil, protein, water, mineral matter. Use of all 
nutrients to seedling. 

Second week. Other Needs of Young Plants. Home experiments 
to show (a) temperature, (h) amount of water most favorable to 
germination. Experiment. To show need of oxygen. To show 
that germinating seeds give off carbon dioxide. Proof of presence 
of carbon dioxide in breath. The needs of a young plant compared 
with those of a boy or girl. Digestion in seedling. Structure of 
corn grain. Experiment. To show that starch is digested in a 
growing seedling (corn). Experiment. To show that diastase or 
ptyalin digests starch. 

Third week. What Plants take from the Soil and How they do 
This. Use of roots. Proof that it holds plant in position, takes in 
water and mineral matter, and in some cases stores food. Influence 
of gravity and water. Labeled drawing of root hair. Root hair as 
a cell emphasized. Osmosis and diffusion. Uses of these demon- 

Fourth week. Upward Course of Materials in the Stem. Demon- 
stration of evaporation of water from a leaf. Action of stomata in 


control of transpiration. Cellular structure of leaf. Sun a source of 
energy. Demonstration. Necessity of sunlight for starch manufac- 
ture. Necessity of air for starch manufacture. By-products in 
starch making. Respiration. (Experiments and demonstrations.) 


First week. The Circulation of and Uses of Food by Greex 
Plants. "Dicot" and ''monocot" stems studied in laboratory. 
Review functions of green plants. 

Second week. Study of Simplest Organisms. Pleurococcus, or 
Amoeba. Study of Paramecium. Relation to environment. Study 
of cell under microscope to show reactions. Structure of cell. Re- 
sponse to stimuli. Drawings to show how locomotion is performed, 
general structure. Copy chart for fine structure. 

Third week. The Balanced AQUARitiki. Study of conditions pro- 
ducing this. The role of green plants, the role of animals. What 
causes the balance. How the balance may be upset. The nitrogen 
cycle. 'WTiat it means in the world outside the aquarium. Sym- 
biosis as opposed to parasitism. Mid-term examinations. 

Fourth week. Begin Study of Human Organism as Compared 
WITH Frog as Type. External study only. 


First week. The Human Machine. Skin, bones and muscles, func- 
tion of each. Examples and demonstration \\Tth skeleton. Organs 
of body cavity; show manikin. Work done by cells in body. 
Study of foods to determine: (a) nutritive value. Exercise \^Tth 
food charts to determine foods rich in water, starch, sugar, fats, 
proteins, vitamins, mineral salts, refuse. One day. (5) Nutritive 
value of foods as related to work, age, sex, environment, cost, and 
digestibility. Foods compared to determine what is really a cheap 

Second week. How the Fuel Value of Food has been Deter- 
mined. The dietaries of Atwater, Chittenden, and Voit. The 100- 
calorie portion table and its use. The application of the 100-calo- 
rie portion to the making of the daily dietaries. Luncheon dietaries. 
A balanced dietary for pupil for one day. Family dietaries. Rela- 
tion to cost. Reasons for this. Food adulterations. Tests. Drugs 
and the alcohol question. 


Third week. Digestion and Absorption. The alimentary canal of 
frog and of man compared. The work of glands. Enzymes, internal 
secretions. Experiments to show (a) digestion of starch by saliva, 
(6) digestion of proteins by gastric or pancreatic juice. Functions 
of other digestive glands. Movements of stomach and intestine 
discussed and explained. Absorption. How it takes place, where 
it takes place. Passage of foods into blood, function of liver, 


First week. The Blood and its Circulation. Composition and 
functions of plasma, red corpuscles, colorless corpuscles, blood 
plates, antibodies — Hormones. The lymph and work of tissues. 
The blood and its method of distribution. Heart a force pump. 
Demonstration. Arteries, capillaries (demonstration), veins. Hy- 
giene of exercise. 

Second week. What Respiration does for the Body. Cell respira- 
tion. The mechanics of respiration. Demonstration. Ventilation, 
need for, explain proper ventilation. Demonstration. Hygiene of 
fresh air and proper breathing. Skin and kidneys, regulation of 
body heat. Colds and fevers. Summary of blood changes in body. 
Explanation of same. 

Third week. Responses to Stimuli in Simple Animals, in Man. 
Neurons, reflexes, functions of parts of central nervous system. 
Sense organs of man. Hygiene. 

Fourth week. Habit Formation. Good vs. bad habits. Health habits. 
Review. Examinations. 





February First and 

Second weeks Chapters I and II 

XX, begin XXI 
March First " " XXI, begin XXII 












































" XXII completed 
begin XX\' 

XXV finish and examinations 

begin XXVIII 
finish XXVIII 

" begin XXXI 

finish XXXI. Chap. XXXII 
Reviews and Examinations 

First Semester 

Review Chaps. II and III 
Chapter begin IX 
" finish IV 
" begin XI 
" VI completed 



" X 
" XI Examinations 

begin XII 
" XII completed. Begin XIII 

" XV 
" XVI 



XIX and Examinations 






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